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45 Cards in this Set

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Who was Bix Beiderbecke? What were his three periods? What did he want to be remembered as?
•1st great white jazz player – clarinet and piano
•Wanted to be remembered as a composer
•“In a Mist”-From Iowa

Three periods of his brief career:
1) Wolverines with Hoagy Carmichael (a group at Indiana University)
2) Frankie Trumbauer (Tram)
3) Paul Whiteman (Very commercial)
What were the pieces of Duke Ellington that we studied? What are two identifying characteristics, or important facts about each one? What was his first band? Where was his first important engagement? What did the critics call the music? Why? Because of whom?
-First band was “Washingtonians”
-First important engagement -"Cotton Club" (Harlem) (1927-1931)
-Critics referred to it as Jungle sound due to Bubber Miley’s plunger work and growls
-Thunder mute
What does the golden section (or golden mean) have to do with proportion in music? How do composers use this? Who discovered it?
.618 proportion
Who played with Benny Goodman in his quartet? Why was this group important? Musically? Sociologically?
oBegan in 1935 as a trio
oFirst racially mixed band
List some differences between Louis Armstrong and Bix Beiderbecke.
Bix Beiderbeck
1) used the cornet
2) Used wider intervals
3) More introspective
List three reasons why Thelonious Monk is important. Name one of his pieces that we studied.
An unorthodox composer, his work seriously challenged improvisers.
•Able to sound as if he “Bends” notes.
•His music transcends a stylistic category.
•Melodic, germ development.
•Had well focused compositions with a minimum amount of material. Each of his pieces has different qualities.
•Used rhythm extensively.
Straight, No Chaser
Robert Johnson
-died of poisoning
-Eric Clapton’s Idol
-“Hell Hound on My Trail”
-Phrases are measured
-Nasal vocal quality
Slam Stewart
played bass and “I got Rhythm”
-played solo w/bow (song octave high)
Dizzy Gillespie
First & most important bop trumpeter
Dave Bruceck
-mixed meters
-cross rhythm
-Introduced Afro-Cuban music in jazz
MJQ
no horn players; dignified and quite
Art Tatum
-Piano
-change harmony
-Well known for Reharmonization
• Willow Weep for Me and Too Marvelous for Words
Chet Baker
trumpet
Gerry Mulligan
horizontally
Lester Young
- saxophone
-west coast of cool jazz
-One of the most influential saxophonists.
- Influenced by F. Trumbauer.
-Played with a light, airy sound
-Listening – Lester Leaps In
Count Basie
played piano
Born Red Bank, NJ, 1904
Stranded in Kansas City, 1927, played in silent movie theatres.
Took over and reorganized Bennie Moten’s band in 1935.

Style went from stride to very sparse.
Coleman Hawkins
tenor sax
Sidney Bechet
- clarinet
-Part of the Dixieland Revival
-Bechet’s unique sound which includes
1) Vibrato & 2) “Open throated” aspect
Charlie Christian
played guitar and Breakfast Fued
Benny Goodman
popularized swing
-As a soloist, he defined jazz clarinet as no other, before or since.
Django Reinhardt
- lost two fingers in a fire
- Belgian gypsy guitarist
- Unamplified guitar
Milt Jackson
vibraphone
Charlie Parker
May be the most important musical figures in the history of jazz
-densely packed solos
- played fast, and played a lot of notes
- chromatically embellished tones
Cootie Williams
trumpet
mixed meters
cross rhythm
congo square
A place where slaves were permitted to dance. Now called Louis Armstrong Park.
No horn players
- Modern Jazz Quartet
reharmonization
keeping melody intact
Quintette de Hot Club du France
Djano Reinhardt band
minstrel show
Placed white performers in black makeup, where they mimicked, ridiculed, & made fun of the music, dance and culture of the slave population. Example – Stephen Foster.
counterpoint
note against note
Brass vs. Reeds
Instrumentation:
5 saxophones, 3-4 trumpets, 3-4 trombones, piano, bass, guitar, and drums.
nonet
9 players
supermetric
big beat on top of small beat
riff tune
used as melody for some tunes
from entertainers to artists
entertainment - something that amuses, pleases, or diverts.
-artists - the conscious production of human creativity; sounds, colors, forms, movements, or other elements found in a manner that affects the senses.
bend notes
done by Thelonius Monk
the pain of racism
Louis Armstrong smoked pot as an insulator for the pain of racism
Little Rock AR
Background information: 1954 - Compulsory segregation in public schools is ruled unconstitutional. 1957 - A Federal court ordered Central High School in Little Rock AR to integrate. Governor Orval E. Faubus sent the National Guard to block the integration. After much hand wringing, President Eisenhower placed National Guard under federal control, and sent in US Army troops to allow integration to proceed. Armstrong canceled a state department tour and became an outspoken critic of the President over reluctance to send in troops to Arkansas. Therefore, the FBI file. So much for being an "Uncle Tom"
Cotton Club
1920 night club in Harlem (Duke Ellington)
first white jazz musician
Bix Beiderbecke
walking bass
A bass line or quarter notes on the pulse, that just "walks along." They can be stepwise or scalar.
Fibonacci series
- golden section- .618
- 61%
ragtime
Usually thought of as a piano genre. It has an even division of the beat, and comes from the military march form. AABBACCDD
alternate takes
more than one version