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26 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
a series of notes arranged in a given order to form a recognizable unit (the “tune”)
supports the melody without being a "hummable tune"
a short musical idea, a salient recurring figure, musical fragment or succession of notes that has some special importance in or is characteristic of a composition.
the aspect of music having to do with the duration of the notes in time; the patterns in which long and short durations of sound are arranged
a rhythm?
any particular pattern of long and short durations (or alternations of sound and silence)
a means of organizing rhythm into regular, repeating patterns; based on an alternation of strong and weak beats
dupal meter?
alternation based on multiples of two (strong-weak, strong-weak, like the pulsing of blood or marching feet)
triple meter?
based on multiples of three (strong-weak-weak, strong-weak-weak, etc.)
a musical surprise or swing created when the emphasis falls in an unexpected place. basically when the note doesn't fall on the beat.
the chords or other accompanying sounds that support, underpin, and color any melody
harmonies or chords that sound peaceful or pleasant together
harmonies or chords that sound tense, stirred up, troubling
The play of consonance and dissonance, combined with patterns of CONTRAST and REPETITION in melody, creates musical FORM
-­‐-­‐from the Italian word for “return”
-­‐-­‐a set of musical themes played by the orchestra
in a concerto (but in Baroque concerto soloists play along
with it)
-­‐-­‐heard at the very beginning and very end of a
movement, and in shorter bursts also in the
middle, between solo episodes: architectural
pillars for the movement (each movement of a
concerto has a different ritornello)
-­‐-­‐made up of short, catchy ideas that can be
freer, less repetitive, more ornate. Listen for trills, arpeggios, and other very fast repeating patterns that can sound flashy and mechanical
-­‐-­‐piece of music for solo instrument(s) and orchestra
-­‐-­‐usually in three movements: fast/slow/fast
-­‐-­‐from either the Latin “concertare” (to dispute) or the
Italian “concertare” (to reach agreement); musically
either and both can happen
-­‐-­‐based on contrasting blocks of sound, and on play
between individual and community
Lutheran chorale?
Simple language; Vernacular
Rhymed metrical verse
Strophic form (A A A - very simple)
“Choral” had meant Latin plainchant (“gregorianischer Choral”)
Monophonic in Luther’s hymnbooks, but soon after set for multiple parts by Lutheran composers
J.S. Bach followed a tradition of using chorales as the bases for his cantatas, creating his own harmonizations
A chorale was originally a hymn sung by a Christian congregation. Intended to be sung by the congregation so generally simple and monophonic.
--From It. “cantare” – to sing
--Had simple instrumental accompaniment
--Generally Sacred or secular texts
--In 18th c, typically:
Mixture of musical genres (not necessarily all of these):
“Sinfonia,” “Sonata”
Recitative (where applicable)
Choruses (where applicable)
--Texts: Mixture of biblical quotation, free verse, and chorale texts
an improvised or written-out ornamental passage played or sung by a soloist or soloists, usually in a "free" rhythmic style, and often allowing for virtuosic display.
sonata form?
read more on this, but simple explanation is:

--based on contrast between two main themes, 2nd in contrasting key (home vs. away)

--works one or both theme(s) through different keys and melodic transformations
--can sound like a rational investigation of the theme’s potential

--repeats themes and transitional material of Exposition, but resolves tension by bringing 2nd theme (and everything that follows) back into home key
--The primary thematic material for the movement is presented in the Exposition.
--General form:
First subject group — this consists of one or more themes, all of them in the home key (also called the tonic)
Transition — in this section the composer modulates (changes) from the key of the first subject to the key of the second.
Second subject group — one or more themes in a different key (generally different feeling key) from the first group. If the first group is in a major key, the second group will usually be in the dominant. The material of the second group is often different in rhythm or mood from that of the first group (frequently, it is more lyrical).
Codetta — the purpose of this is to bring the exposition section to a close with a perfect cadence in the same key as the second group.
--perhaps the most clearly “Enlightenment” part ofthe sonata formmovement
--uses material from Exposition (esp one orboth of the themes) and explores its musical possibilities in various directions—fragmenting, transposing (moving into different keys), embellishing...
--akin to an argument or debate, but also to a scientific experiment

In general, the development starts in the same key as the exposition ended, and may move through many different keys during its course. It will usually consist of one or more themes from the exposition altered and on occasion juxtaposed and may include new material or themes

it almost always shows a greater degree of tonal, harmonic, and rhythmic instability than the other sections.

The last part of the development section is called the retransition: It prepares for the return of the first subject group in the tonic
function: to repeat opening material for symmetry, but
also to resolve—back into home key

first theme (as before)

transition (begins as before, but then changes—because
not moving to a new key)

second theme: now in home key (which is MINOR);
slightly different instruments featured, lower range

codetta (as before, but now in home key), followed by
longer CODA—decisive sounding formulas to close
off entire movement
a melodic or harmonic configuration that creates a sense of repose or resolution [finality or pause]. This can be done rhythmically or harmonically, the latter being a progression of chords that resolve to the home key.
After the final cadence of the recapitulation, the movement may continue with a coda which will contain material from the movement proper. Codas, when present, vary considerably in length, but like introductions are not part of the "argument" of the work. The coda will end, however, with a perfect cadence in the original key.