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119 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
MELODY
succesion of single tones (what you hum or remember)
CONJUNCT
intervals are close & connected, "narrow"
DISJUNCT
intervals are far apart, they skip around "wide"
RANGE
lowest note to highest
CADENCE
resting place in musical phrase, music punctuation
PHRASE
unit of meaning in larger structure
RHYTHM
controlled, organized music in time
METER
organized beats into regular groups
BEAT
basic unit of length in musical time
MEASURE
fixed # of beats
DUPLE METER
2 beats to a measure
TRIPLE METER
3 beats to a measure
QUADRUPLE METER
4 beats to a measure, common time
COMPOUND METER
divisible by 3
SYNCOPATION
deliberate upset of tempo, strong beat appears where weak should be
HARMONY
movement/relationship of intervals & chords (depth & support)
INTERVAL
distance between any 2 notes
SCALE
collection of pitches ascending to descending
DIATONIC
music built on the 7 tones of major or minor scale
CHROMATIC
semitones, 1/2 steps, "smallest recognized interval"
CHORD
3 or more tones played simultaneously
TRIAD
3 note chord (1-3-5)
CONSONANCE
agreeable, pleasant
DISONANCE
not agreeable, unpleasant
TEXTURE
musical fabric
MONOPHONIC
single line texture or melody without accompaniment
POLYPHONIC
note against note
HOMOPHONIC
melody, accompaniment
COUNTERPOINT
2 or more notes, combing 2 or more melodic lines in a single texture
IMITATION
one voice restated in another
BINARY
2 part form A-B
TERNARY
3 part form A-B-A
MOVEMENT
complete self-contained part within a larger musical work
REPITION & CONTRAST
unity & variety
REPETITION
fixed material in our minds & satisfies our need for the familiar
CONTRAST
stimulates our interest & feeds our love for change
ACCELERANDO
getting faster
ADAGIO
quite slow
ALLEGRO
cheerful, fast
ANDANTE
walking pace
A TEMPO
return to the previous tempo
GRAVE
solemn, very slow
LARGO
broad, very slow
MENO
less
MODERATO
moderate
MOLTO
very
POCO
a little
PRESTO
very fast
RITARDANDO
gradually slower
VIVACE
lively, very fast
CRESCENDO
gradually louder
DIMINUENDO/DECRESCENDO
gradually softer
FORTE
loud
PIANO
soft
A CAPPELLA
no accompaniment, just voices
CHAMBER MUSIC
ensemble music for up to about ten players, with one player to a part

Ex: trio, duet, quartet
CONDUCTOR
leads performances of musical ensembles by means of gestures
ORCHESTRA
performing group of diverse instruments in various cultures; In Western Art Music, it's an ensemble of multiple strings with various woodwind, brass, & percussion instruments
PITCH
# of vibrations per second; High = piccolo, low = flute
STRING QUARTET
Chamber Music ensemble: 2 violins, 1 viola, 1 cello
WOODWIND QUINTET
Standard chamber ensemble: Flute, oboe, clarinet, basoon & french horn

French Horn is not a Woodwind instrument)... it's in the Brass family
STRING INSTRUMENTS INCLUDE:
Bowed - violin, viola, cello, double-bass

Plucked - harp, guitar

Strings make up 2/3's of the stage
WOODWIND INSTRUMENTS CONSIST OF:
Piccolo - small high pitched
Flute
Oboe - double reed (little bit of nasal sound)
Clarinet - types - small, regular, alto, bass, counterbass; simple reed mouthpiece
Bassoon - double reed
Contrabassoon - double reed
Standard in Orchestra - Flute, Clarinet & Bassoon
BRASS INSTRUMENTS CONSIST OF:
Trumpet
French Horn - curled up, 16 ft. long when tubing unfolded
Trombone - not standard
PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS CONSIST OF:
Pitched: timpani aka kettle drum (usually 6 in orchestra), xylophone, chime, bells aka glockenspiel, marimba, vibraphone

Unpitched: snare drum aka side drum, bass drum, gong/tam-tam, triangle, tambourine, cymbals, woodblocks
PERCUSSION
Adds pitched & unpitched rhythm
CONTRA/WOOD
no string
WIND
smaller ensemble
DISSONANCE
unstable musical sounds in need of resolution
CONSONANCE
musical sounds that seem stable, not needing to resolve; concordant
DRONE
musics that unfold over a supporting sustained tone
HETEROPHONIC
combines 2 or more melodic voices
CANON
Also called Round:
a strictly ordered composition based on one voice imitating another
RETROGRADE
melody heard backwards
INVERSION
melody is turned upside down, so that its intervals occur in the opposite direction
AUGMENTATION
melody is heard more slowly (half as fast)
4 QUALITIES OF ANY MUSICAL SOUND:
pitch, duration, volume, timbre
3 STANDARD FEMALE VOICE PARTS:
soprano, mezzo-soprano, alto
3 STANDARD MALE VOICE PARTS:
tenor, baritone, bass
EMBOUCHURE
lips, lower facial muscles & jaw related to a wind player
KING OF INSTRUMENTS
organ
PIANOTRIO
chamber ensemble of piano & strings
JAZZ BAND
ensemble made up of sections of reed, brass, & rhythm
PIZZICATO
plucking the string with the finger
TRILL
rapid alternation from one tone to the one above it
VIBRATO
throbbing effect produced by slightly wiggling the finger while bowing
MUTING
muffling the sound by a small attachment on the bridge
STACCATO
short, detached style of playing
DOUBLE STOPPING
playing 2 notes at one time
GLISSANDO
plucking the string with the finger
FORM
element of music representing clarity & order
TWO BASIC PRINCIPLES OF MUSIC STRUCTURE:
repetition & contrast
THIRD PRINCIPLE OF FORM:
variation
THEME
melody used as a building block in a work
A MOTIVE
melody broken up into smaller units
SEQUENCE
restated in another pitch level
THEMATIC DEVELOPMENT
expansion of a theme
CALL & RESPONSE
repetitive singing style in which a leader is imitated by a group of followers. Cultures: African, Native American, African-American
NON TROPPO
not too much
MOLTO VIVACE
very lively
FORZANDO
sudden stress or accent
TRUE OR FALSE:
10th century musical scores generally lack indications for dynamics or tempo
false
TRUE OR FALSE:
A change in volume from mp to f would be indicated by a diminuendo
false
TRUE OR FALSE:
The softest dynamic marking ever used is pp
false, can have up to 4 p's (pppp)
TRUE OR FALSE:
Tempo & dynamics contribute to the overall musical expression of a piece
true
Name the category for this instrument:
Gourd rattle
idiophone
Name the category for this instrument:
Japanese koto
chordophone
Name the category for this instrument:
Bagpipe
aerophone
Name the category for this instrument:
Indian sitar
chordophone
Name the category for this instrument:
African hand drum
membranophone
Name the category for this instrument:
Gong/Tam-tam
idiophone
Name the category for this instrument:
Horns & flutes
aerophone
IDIOPHONE
instrument category that produces sound from the substance of the instrument as it is rubbed, struck, or shaken
MEMBRANOPHONE
any instrument that is sounded from a tightly stretched skin that is struck, rubbed, or plucked
CHORDOPHONE
an instrument that produces sound from a vibrating string stretched between 2 points. It can be sounded by 2 means: bowing & plucking
Name 2 modern Western instruments of Middle Eastern origin:
possible answer =
guitar & timpani
NAME TYPES OF AEROPHONES:
Possible answers:
French Horn, flute, trumpet, oboe, clarinet, tuba, trombone, bassoon, sax
NAME TYPES OF CHORDOPHONES
Possible answers:
Violin, double-bass
NAME TYPES OF MEMBRANOPHONES
Possible answer:
timpani