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53 Cards in this Set

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Form of many standard tunes. 32 bars long. 4 sections of 8 bars each. Includes a BRIDGE.
AABA
The soloist is the only timekeeper. The rhythm section and/or band usually plays a note every two or four bars.
Stop Time
American Society of Composers, Authors, and Publishers. A licensing agency. (BMI)
ASCAP
A feeling. Also a form of music. 12 bars, 3 sections of 4 bars each.
Blues
a short section (usually 2 bars) repeated over and over.
Vamp
A musician in a band, different from the leader.
Sideman
Introductory section of a popular song or ballad, as distinguished from the chorus. Irregular number of bars. See CHORUS.
Verse
The middle section of an AABA tune. Different key area usually. It leads back into the A section. Also part of a stringed instrument that holds up the strings.
Bridge
A musician's job, engagement. (Slang)
Gig
alternating four (X) bar phrases between the rest of the band and the drummer. A type of drum solo.
Trading fours
To start a note. Different shapes.
Attack
A spot where the band stops playing in order to let the soloist get started.
Solo Break
same as pulse. (Heartbeat)
Beat
an informal gathering of musicians, playing on their own time and improvising on one or two numbers. After hours. Not found anymore.
Jam Session
One pass through the form of the tune. Similar to going around the board in monopoly.
Chorus
Technical facility, endurance (Slang)
Chops
A series of chords, or harmonies. Referred to as the changes.
Harmonic Progression
Notes that are "foreign" to a given key, and the free utilization of altered notes
Chromatic
A note, part of a particular scale, that gives a bluesy quality to the musical line. Includes flat 3,5, and 7. Also, a very famous jazz club in NYC.
Blue Note
similar to a riff - a pattern of notes, in all keys, used as the basic vocabulary of jazz.
Lick
Musical term meaning get softer
Diminuendo
1) To play below the pitch. 2) A chromatic alteration to a pitch.
Flat
see Harmonic Progression
Changes
The melody of the tune. A jazz performance usually begins by playing it
Head
A form of musical response, i.e. one choir answering another; music characterized by the alternation of two or more parts.
Antiphonal
A generic term used in composition and improvisation, it originates from black church music.
Call & Response
The groupings of these pulses or beats. It can be caused by accenting certain beats.
Meter
Same as bar. A group of pulses.
Measure
Musical term meaning get louder.
Crescendo
A listing of recordings, usually categorized by genre, player, or band.
Discography
An accessory to a brass instrument, it changes the sound, making it brassier, softer, etc...
Mute
A common rubber toilet plunger used as a muting device by trumpet and trombone players.
Plunger
The pattern that goes on top of the beat (pulse)
Rhythm
Similar to a scale. A sequence of acoustic relationships. Not the same as key.
Mode
A colloquial expression, meaning an added or "tagged" on ending.
Tag
1) to stop a note. 2) The bridge
Release
An accompanying line or part, used to enhance a melody.
Obligato
A temporary shifting or displacement of a regular metrical accent; emphasis on a weak or unaccented note so as to displace the regular meter.
Syncopation
the strings are plucked instead of bowed (arco)
Pizz "Pizzicato"
An instrumental effect sounding like a trill but with a wider intervallic range. Produced by "shaking" the mouthpiece against the lips.
Shake
free in tempo
Rubato
five note scale, with no 4th or 7th. Used as vocabulary for the jazz language.
Pentatonics
a short repetitive figure usually played by a section behind a soloist.
Riff
1) To play above the pitch. 2) A chromatic alteration to a pitch
Sharp
a series of acoustical relationships that divide the octave into tones and semitones.
Scale
three notes, played such that they equal two notes of the same value. Three equal notes played within one beat, two beats, or four beats.
Triplet
Manipulation of certain chord tones, putting them in different order.
Voicing
Key area. Certain chords have more strength and "pull" than others, setting up a hierarchy or chords.
Tonality
A bass line or quarter notes on the pulse, that just "walks along." They can be stepwise or scalar.
Walking Bass
Term for that part of an improvised chorus during which the chord progression returns to the initial chord of the piece or tonic. it usually occurs at the last two bars of an 8 or 12 bar structure. Most jazz musicians have a number of patterns or "licks" that will fit these "changes" (iii-ii-V7-I)
Turnaround
Relative speed of the pulse.
Tempo
Rapid up and down motion of the pitch. Gives warmth to a sound. From the verb "vibrate"
Vibrato
Tone color. Caused by relative strength of the overtone series.
Timbre