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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phrase
-a musical sentence
-a single melodic idea
conjunct motion
-smooth, stepwise motion
-possibly Ruth Crawford's "Piano Study in Mixed Accents"
disjunct motion
-leaps, especially large leaps
register
-range of pitches in a melody; vocal or instrumental
-very high register in Verdi's "La Traviata": coloratura soprano
meter
-the underlying pattern of beats that maintains itself consistently throughout a work
triple meter
-accented beat followed by two unaccented beats
duple meter
-accented beat followed by an unaccented beat
measure
-a rhythmic unit
syncopated
-notes run against the regular pulse of a musical meter
-accents on beats other than 1 and 3
major mode
-melodies sound brighter and happier
minor mode
-melodies sound darker and more somber
unison
-both (all) voices sing exactly the same note
-usually at the end of a cadence
tonic
-central tonality/key area
-"home" key
modulate
-change of key
atonality
-no key, no tonal center, no sense of resolution
-Schoenberg's "Pierrot lunaire" no. 14 (heilige kreuze) and no. 21 (o alter duft)
polytonality
-juxtaposition of two conventional harmonies simultaneously
whole tone scale
-no half steps, eliminating further sense of tonal center
-an exotic quality?
-Debussy's "Voiles"
pentatonic scale
-based on five notes instead of traditional seven
-beginning of Spring Round Dance in Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
monophonic
-single melodic voice/line, with no accompaniment
homophonic
-melodic line with a subordinate accompaniment
-
polyphonic
-melody performed against another line of equal importance
timbre
-the character of a sound
-determined by the kind of instruments or voices performing it
-Copland's "Hoedown": sometimes full orchestra, sometimes imitation of dance hall, sometimes imitation of high bells
-Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring": HUGE orchestra
piano
-soft dynamic
forte
-loud dynamic
sectional
-each new section of the text receives a new musical idea
da capo (aria)
-go back to beginning of aria and repeat through end of A section
-ABA
rondo form
-repeated return of opening theme, w/contrasting material heard between each return
-A B A C A
-"round dance"
-main theme of rondo typically brief and almost instantly recognizable
-Copland's "Hoedown"
non-directional
-Debussy's "Voiles"
-no sense that music moving away from or back toward a tonic key or any other kind of goal
-even ending seems inconclusive; stops but no sense of closure
-combo of elements of timbre, dynamics, rhythm, harmony
opera
-drama that is sung rather than spoken
-music enhances text and injects heightened emotion into story
-Verdi's "La Traviata" and Wagner's "Die Walkure, Act III: Wotan's Farewell"
ballet
-a musical choreographic work
-Stravinsky's "The Rite of Spring"
opera cycle
-Wagner's "Ring of the Nibelungen"
-"Die Walkure, Act III: Wotan's Farewell" is the second opera in the cycle of 4 operas
syllabic
-one note per syllable
melismatic
-multiple notes over a single syllable
word-painting
-specific words are presented graphically
imitation
-one voice presents a musical idea and another repeats it, but entering later than the first
recitative
-text not sung w/established melody or rhythm
-thin, light texture underneath
-mostly syllabic
-speech like
aria
-more lyrical passage
ostinato rhythm
-simple rhythmic pattern repeated many times
-stravinsky's "the rite of spring"
leitmotif
-a brief musical phrase or idea connected dramatically to some person, event, or idea in a music drama
-"leading motifs" meant to lead/direct our minds in a certain way when we see what is happening onstage
-Wagner's "Die Walkure, Act III: Wotan's Farewell"
-spear: steady, confident, downward-striding figure in brass; confidence of Wotan's authority
-sword: loud, bright like a fanfare
-sleep: descending line by soft winds and high strings
-fate: brief, open-ended associated w/idea of destiny
-fire: flickers, bright, strings/winds, medium dynamics, background violins, melody repeats
-Loge: almost synonymous with fire
sprechstimme
-singer hits but doesn't sustain precise pitches; drops her voice once she hits the note
-"speech-voice"
coloratura soprano
-can do elaborate runs and trills in a very high range
modernism
-ppl consciously doing things differently; move away from past
-IMPRESSIONISM
-EXPRESSIONISM
ultramodernism
-Crawford's "Piano study in mixed accents"
expressionism
-sought to give voice to the unconscious
-to make manifest humanity's deepest and often darkest emotions
-rejects conventional techniques of representation, favoring instead devices that exaggerate and distort
-Schoenberg's "pierrot lunaire"
impressionism
-not trying to depict something or tell a story
-meant to convey a mood
-blurring of distinct harmonies, rhythms, and forms
-places great emphasis on color (timbre) of sound
-debussy's "voiles"
primitivism
-back to the origins
-comes from primate, primary but NOT primitive
-free of decadent veneer of civilization
-Stravinsky's "The rite of spring"
aleatory music
-music of chance
-specifies elements of rhythm and dynamics with great precision but leave sound content entirely to chance