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60 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
phrase
-a musical sentence
-a single melodic idea
conjunct motion
smooth, step-wise motion
disjunct motion
leaps, especially large leaps
register
-range of pitches in a melody; vocal or instrumental
-Ordo Virtutem, Hildegard
-String Quartet in C major, Haydn
meter
-the underlying pattern of beats that maintains itself consistently throughout a work
-triple: accented beat followed by two unaccented beats
-duple: accented beat followed by unaccented beat
iambic
-short LONG, short LONG
-duple meter: first section of "Since Robin Hood"
trochaic
-LONG short, LONG short
-triple meter: second section of
"Since Robin Hood"
syncopated
-notes run against the regular pulse of the musical meter
-accents on beats other than 1 and 3
-"Since Robin Hood": to skip
measure
a rhythmic unit
major mode
minor mode
-melodies sound brighter and happier
-melodies sound darker and more somber
unison
-both (all) voices sing exactly the same note
-usually at end of cadence: "Ecco La Primavera"
tonic
central tonality/key area; "home" key
modulate
-change of key
-Vivaldi: begins and ends in tonic, but modulates throughout
monophonic
-single melodic voice/line, with no accompaniment
-Hildegard's "Ordo Virtutum"
homophonic
-melodic line with a subordinate accompaniment
-an opera with a soloist singer and accompanying yet subordinate music below them
-Monteverdi's "L'Orfeo"
polyphonic
-melody performed against another line of equal importance
-Landini's "Ecco La Primavera"
timbre
-the character of a sound
-determined by the kind of instruments or voices performing it
-Bach's "Fugue in G minor"
dynamics
-determine the volume of a given work or passage in a work of music
sectional
-each new section of the text receives a new musical idea
-
da capo (aria)
-to go back to the beginning of the aria and repeats it through the end of the A section
-ABA
-Bach's "Wachet Auf" Cantata 140
theme and variations
-theme is first presented by one of the violins, then repeated in slightly varied form by each of the other instruments across the movement
-Haydn's "String Quartet in C Major, 2nd mvt."
minuet form
-ABA
-minuet proper followed by contrasting trio, then repeat of opening of minuet proper
-Haydn's "Symphony 102, mvt. 3"
ternary form
-form of the minuet (ABA)
-minuet proper, trio, minuet proper
-Haydn's "symphony no.102, mvt. 3"
binary form
-just two reprises w/o returning to A or the opening idea
-form in the trio of Haydn's "symphony no.102, mvt. 3"
rounded binary form
-two reprises (two sections to be repeated)
-halfway through second reprise, opening idea returns in tonic key, "rounding out" the form
-A section of the ternary form
rondo form
-the repeated return of the opening theme, with contrasting material heard between each return
-A B A C A
-"round dance"
-main theme of rondo typically brief and almost instantly recognizable
-jaunty and bright; provide satisfying conclusion to larger whole
sonata form
-expanded version of rounded binary form: two reprises and a simultaneous return to the opening idea and key halfway through second reprise
-first reprise always modulates to a new key and ends in that new key
-theme presented in new key in first reprise and repeated in second reprise in the tonic
exposition
-the first reprise, which exposes all the movement's ideas
-first part of sonata form
development
-second part of sonata form
-first half of second reprise; harmonically unstable and unpredictable
-ideas intensively developed
recapitulation
-second half of second reprise
-repeats all ideas of first reprise in original key of the tonic
-DOES NOT MODULATE!
plainchant
-music in the church of the middle ages that was monophonic: single line without accompaniment
-projected the text with clarity and beauty: main focus of attention for worshippers
-hildegard's "ordo virtutum"
madrigal
-setting of a text in a single stanza (strophe)
-thomas weelkes' "since robin hood"
opera
-drama that is sung rather than spoken
-early baroque opera was attempt to recreate sung dramas of greek antiquity
-music enhances text and inject heightened emotion into story
-Monteverdi's "L'Orfeo"
overture
-announced that the "true" opera was starting: the singing
-for instruments alone
french overture
-common in French operas
-slow introduction followed by an imitative fast section
-dotted rhythms in slow section
-purcell's "dido and aeneas"
concerto
-dialogue between soloist (or several) and an orchestra
-usually 3 movements: fast, slow, fast
-vivaldi's "the four seasons: winter (mvt. 1)"
sacred cantata
-written to be sung as part of lutheran service of worship
-can be single mvt. or extended cycle of mvts.
-Bach's "Wachet Auf, cantata 140"
chorale
-an established hymn tune melody
-bach's "wachet auf, cantata 140"
string quartet
-ensemble of 4 similar instruments (2 violins, viola, and cello)
-differ in range from high, middle, and low
-converse with each other
-also a genre
-haydn's "string quartet in C major, 2nd mvt."
symphony
-public genre to be performed in a large space by a large ensemble before a large audience
-no one instrument stands out
syllabic
-one note per syllable
-hildegard's "ordo virtutum"
-landini's "ecco la primavera"
melismatic
-multiple notes over a single syllable
cadence
-brief stopping point at which the music pauses
-landini's "ecco la primavera"
elided cadence
-a new line of text and music begins before the previous one has come to a complete stop
-william byrd's "sing joyfully"
word painting
-specific words are presented graphically
-thomas weelkes' "since robin hood"
-des prez's "el grillo"
imitation
-one voice presents a musical idea and another repeats it, but entering later than the first
-byrd's "sing joyfully"
recitative
-text not sung w/established melody or rhythm; food for dialogue but not musically-satisfying like arias
-thin, light texture underneath
-mostly syllabic
-speech like
-monteverdi's "L'Orfeo"
aria
-more lyrical
ground bass
-basso continuo
-plays throughout, presenting the bass line and its associated harmonies
-monteverdi's "L'Orfeo"
ritornello
-brief return to full orchestra
-alternation of orchestra (tutti) and soloist
-form of vivaldi and Brandenburg
program music
-an instrumental work that is in some way associated with a story, event, or idea
-Vivaldi's "The Four Seasons: Winter (first mvt.)"
obbligato
-necessary
-"3rd solo voice"
-oboe part in Bach's "Wachet Auf"
fugue
-polyphonic work where at least one subject presented consistently across entire work or mvt.
-typically with diff. voices taking up same theme
-Bach's "Fugue in G minor"
subject
-main theme in a fugue
fugual exposition
-opening entry of all the voices on the main subject
-exposes the main idea of the work
middle entries
-main theme reappears at many points within later course of mvt.
-main theme in other voices
episodes
-passages in which the main subject is absent
concertino
-group of soloists
-bach's "brandenburg concerto no. 2, mvt. finale"
tutti
-the whole orchestra
contrafactum
-another way of changing what exists (melody)
-haydn's "string quartet in c major, 2nd mvt."