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144 Cards in this Set

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Name the 2 subcltures that showed characteristics quite different from the norms of society in general during the 1950's?
1. Black subculture
2. Country and western subculture
List the 3 main musical styles associated with the black subculture in the 1950s?
1. jazz
2. gospel
3. rhythm and blues
What does R & B stand for?
Rhythm and Blues
T or F
Rhythm & Blues is related to jazz and gospel.
True
What was the primary reason for the evolution of jazz, gospel and R & B?
Segregation
What musical style were the "race records" based on ?
Rhythm and Blues
T or F
Prior to the 1950's, an R & B performer rarely crossed over into the national pop market.
True
What does C & W stand for?
Country and Western
What is the term given to hte style of folk music that the poorer whites of the South developed?
Hillbilly music
Name 3 types of music that can be included in the genre of country and western music:
1. hillbilly
2. bluegrass
3. western swing
Name the 3 music markets that contributed to the formation of rock and roll:
1. pop
2. R & B - Rhythm and Blues
3. C & W - Country Western
In the early 1950's Pop music was derived from where?
Tin Pan Alley tradition
Describe the Tin Pan Alley tradition:
The old swing period of the 30's and 40's, Hollywood music and Broadway show tunes
What is the name of an area of New York City that became the center of popular music publishing from the late 1800s to the late 1950s?
Tin Pan Alley
Who generated primarily the Tin Pan Alley songs?
White professional songwriters
T or F
Generally, Tin Pan Alley songs had a very straight, uncomplicated rhythm with 4(sometimes 3) beats to each measure.
True
What is the word that best describes the melodies of Tin Pan Alley songs?
PRETTY
Tin Pan Alley songs were symetrically organized inbto units of how many measures?
Four measures
What is another word for "measure"?
Phrase
T or F
Tempos of Tin Pan Alley songs were generally fast.
False,
Tempos of Tin Pan Alley songs were generally moderate to slow
Describe the faster tempos of Tin Pan Alley songs?
Bouncy and cute
Who usually recorded the Tin Pan Alley songs?
Professional singers with full orchestras and a small chorus
What was the average peak popularity of a Tin Pan Alley song in the early 1950s?
@ 2 months
What was the usual rise in popularity of a song in the Pop charts?
Song would rise for @ 4 weeks and have an equal 4 weeks in decline, so that the average time on the pop charts was @ 20 to 25 weeks.
T or F
The early 1950s pop music market was dominated by many record labels.
False,
The 1950s pop music market was dominated by 5 major record companies.
Name the 5 major record companies that dominated the 1950s pop music market:
1. RCA Victor
2. Columbia
3. Capitol
4. Mercury
5. Decca
T or F
If an artis on one label had commercial success with a particular sonb, the other companies would quickly produce a version of the same son featuring one of their artists.
True
What age of consumer was the pop music market of 1950s targeting?
Adult
What segment of consumer was the pop music market of 1950s made up?
Exclusively white
T or F
Rhythm is basic to all music
True
What is the term for the interrelationship between music and time?
Rhythm
What are the basic parts of all music?
1. beginning
2. duration
3. ending
T or F
Each part of music has in internal pace of activity, with moments of exciting eactivity alternating with moments in which the action subsides.
True
In music, who determines the thythmic nature of the work?
The Composer
What is the term given to the speed of the notes moving through time in music?
Tempo
What do the many notes, each with different lenths compared with others, make up in music?
The Rhythmic Element
What is created by a vibrating body (guitar string or piano string or a saxophone reed)?
Pitch or tone
The faster the vibration of a vibrating body, the ________ the pitch
The higher the pitch
What do we think of when we hear 2 or more pitches in succession?
A melody or tune
What do we usually remember about a song, the tune or the rhythm?
The tune
What is the term that describes how high and how low the melody goes?
The Range
Describe melodies that move from very low to very high notes:
Wide Range
Describe melodies whose notes move up and down very little
Narrow Range
What is the term used to describe a melody that moves gradually from its lower pitches to its higher pitches?
Conjunt
What is the term used to describe a melody that is jumping from its high to its low pitches
Disjunct
What is the term used to describe the pattern of the location of notes (pitches)in a melody
The melody's CONTOUR
What is the term for a short melody pattern
Motive
What is the term for the combination of note simultaneously?
Harmony
What is the term for when 3 or more notes are sounded simultaneously?
Chord
What is the term for a 3-note chord?
Triad
How many pitches do musicians work with?
7 (seven)
Name the 7 pitches that musicians work with:
1. A
2. B
3. C
4. D
5. E
6. F
7. G
What is the term for the distance from a given note to its next occurrence in the musical alphabet?
Octave
What is another word that is interchanged with "tonality"
"key"
Describe the notes in the key of C
1. C
2. D
3. E
4. F
5. G
6. A
7. B
What is the term given to the tone quality of sound?
Timbre
How do you pronounce "timbre"?
"tam-burr"
T or F
Each voice and instrument has a distinctive sound quality or timbre.
True
T or F
Certain timbres are associated certain sytles of music
True
What is the term for the way the various musical lines function in relation to each other?
Texture
List the 3 basic possible textures of music:
1. monophony
2. homophony
3. polypony
What is the simplest musical texture?
Monophony
What is the term for when there is one and only one musical line?
Monophony
T or F
10 singers all singin exactly the same melodic line are creating polyphony.
False.
10 singers all singing exactly the same melodic line are creating monophony.
What is the term for when one musical line predominates, but other lines are also pressent in a subservient role.
Homophony
What is the most common type of homophony?
Melody and accompaniament texture
What example of texture is a singer accompanied by a guitar?
Homophony
What is the term for when two or more independent lines of approximately equal importance are played?
Polyphony
What are the words used to describe texture?
1. thick
2. thin
How would you describe the texture of 2 singers singing a duet?
thin
How would you describe a choir with a full orchestra, brass and strings playing melodies and coutermelodies, harmonies?
thick
What is the term for the amount of displacement of a vibrating body?
Amplitude
Usually, what are the words we use to instead of amplitude?
Loudness or Volume
What is the term used by musicians
Dynamics
What is the term for the organizational sgtructure of a piece of music?
Form
What is the result of changes in some or all of the musical elements?
Form
T or F
Technically speaking, the lyrics of a song are not an integral part of the music.
True
What is the term used for the verbal expression of a song?
Lyrics
T or F
Music is a language.
True
T or F
In the 1950s C & W had a large and nationally defined audience.
False,
C & W had a small and regioinally well-defined audience.
By the 1950s, where were the centers of C & W music?
1. South
2. Southwest
3. Midwest
What is the most influentical C & W oriented radio show?
The Grand Ole Opry
Where is the Grand Ole Opry?
Nashville, Tenn.
Name the publishing house that attracted performers and songwriters to Nashville?
Acuff-Rose
T or F
The C & W market was served mainly by small independent record companies scattered throughout the regions.
True
Describe the type of consumer of the C & W market?
Whtie adults
T or F
The form of the typical C & W song was similar to that of Tin Pan Alley.
True
Describe the typical subject of C & W lyrics
Love-oriented
What is the most recognizable characteristic of the 1950 C & W music?
The timbre
What were the 2 specific sources of the timbre of the 1950 C & W music?
1. vocalist
2. steel guitar
Describe the typical timbre of the 1950 C & W vocalist?
1.Nasal
2.sliding from one note to another
3.yodeling
Where did the steel guitar originate?
Hawaii
What instrument was absent from C & W music until the 1950s?
The Drums
Until the 1950s what instrument set the rhythm in C & W music?
Bass guitar player
How many members typcially made up the rock and roll band of the 1950s?
4 to 6 players
List the typical instruments found in the rock-and-roll band of the 1950s?
1. drums
2. bass (acoustic)
3. 2 electric guitars - one lead the other rhythm
4. piano (acoustic)
5. saxophone (alto or tenor)
When did the expansion of electronic instruments appear on the music scene?
1970s and 1980s
What is the basic instrument of all rock and roll?
Guitar
List the 2 basic varieties of guitar:
1. Acoustic
2. Electric
What kind of guitar did Elvis Presley start out with?
Acoustic
Which guitar, acoustic or electric, is considered the basic instrument of rock and roll?
Electric guitar
Why can electric guitars be made out of metal or wood and have either hollow or solid bodies and come in a variety of shapes?
They do not require the wooden sound chamber of the acoustic guitar
Who developed the "Stratocaster", that became the model for electric guitars in rock and roll for many years?
Leo Fender
What is a recent development in guitars that increases the mobility for its player?
Wireless electric guitar
What is the name given to the ideal pop singer of the early 1950s who was iat his best singing soft, slow love songs?
Crooner
What is the term used for the slow love songs?
Ballads
List several "crooner" singers popular in the softer rock:
1. Pat Boone
2. Paul Anka
3. Frankie Avalon
4. The Carpenters
5. Barry Manilow
List several "screamers" or shouters of the harder early days of rock and roll:
1. Janis Joplin
2. Little Richard
3. James Brown
List several half crooners and half shouters of the early days of rock and roll:
1. Jerry Lee Lewis
2. Fats Domino
3. Beach Boys
What is considered the central ingredient to a rock and roll band?
The Drums
What is another name for the typical drum set?
trap set or traps
How many people typically play the drums in a rock and roll band?
One person
List the drums that make up a typical drum set in a rock and roll band:
1. bass drum
2. snare drum
3. tenor drum
4. tom-tom
5. sock cymbal
6. pair of hi-hat cymbals
7. cowbell
8. variety of mallets
What instrument do most drummers not like?
Electronic drum machines
What quickly replaced the piano in bands as rock and roll bands?
Keyboards
What is the name of the instrument that used tapes of prerecorded tones by various instruments?
Mellotron
What rock and roll band's sound became esp identified with the Mellotron?
The Moody Blues
What are the 2 things that synthesizers basically do?
1. generate sounds by means of oscillators
2. they modify sounds by means of various devices such as filters, envelope shapers, and ring modulators.
What is the term for the linkage between the cynthesizer and the computer?
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
What does MIDI stand for?
Musical Instrument Digital Interface
T or F
Electronic organs predate rock and roll.
True
Who introduced the electric organ in 1939?
Louis Hammond
List the 5 basic saxophones:
1. soprano
2. alto
3. tenor
4. baritone
5. bass
T or F
All of the types of saxophones have different shapes.
False
All of the types of saxophones have basically the same shape
Which of the 3: pop, R & B, or C & W, is the most important tributary to rock and roll?
R & B
What market was R & B in the 1940s and 1950s made up?
Black america
What market was made up of both black performers and black consumers prior to 1950s?
R & B
Describe the companies that served the R & B markets prior to 1950s?
Small indies (independents)
What region was the center to R & B prior to the 1950s?
The South
Name the area that most R & B singers traced their roots?
1. New Orleans
2. Mississippi Delta
3. Alabama
4. Georgia
5. Tennessee
6. Florida
Name the 3 cities that became the leading centers for R & B recording:
1. New York City
2. Chicago
3. Los Angeles
List the companies that became heavy hitters in R & B by the late 1940s:
1. Atlantic (NYC)
2. Chess (Chicago)
3. Speciality (LA)
4. Imperial (LA)
What is the term used to describe the musical scheme that R & B songs were based?
12-bar blues - twelve bar blues
T or F
R & B was rarely notated, usually worked outin rehearsal and loosely predtermined.
True
List the typical R & B combo(band)instruments
1. guitars
2. bass
3. piano
4. drums
5. saxophone
6. harmonica
How many chords are used in the 12-bar blues?
3 chords
Where did the power of R & B songs lie?
The rhythm, thus RHYTHM and blues
List some early R & B performers:
1. Big Bill Broonzy
2. Bessie Smith
3. Howlin Wolf
4. Muddy Waters
5. Lightnin Hopkins
6. Ma Rainey
7. Joe Turner
8. Memphis Slim
9. T-Bone Walker
10. Elmore James
11. Otis Spann
12. B.B. King
What is meant by the "blues progression"?
standard 12-measure blues
What is the term for the rhythmic pulses put into music by the composer or performer and heard and felt by the listener?
Beats
What is the term given to the units of groups of beats?
Measures
What is another word for measure?
Bar
How many bars are in each phrase in R & B?
Each phrase is 4 bars long.
How are phrases indicated in music notation?
curving lines over the measures