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68 Cards in this Set

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What is the most common cause of musculoskeletal problems?
injury from a traumatic event
How often are accidents fatal?
they are the leading cause of death in children and young adults; in all ages, accidents are only exceeded by heart disease, cancer, and strokes as a cause of death
What accounts for many musculoskeletal injuries in the home?
Falls
Soft tissue injuries
sprains, strains, dislocations, and subluxation
What are the 2 most common types of injury affecting the musculoskeletal system?
sprains and strains
What is a sprain?
an injury to ligamentous structures surrounding a joint
What is a sprain usually caused by?
A wrenching or twisting motion
Classification of sprains
First-degree (mild), second-degree (moderate), and third-degree (severe)
First-degree sprain
involves tears of only a few fibers resulting in mild tenderness and slight swelling
Second-degree sprain
partial disruption of the involved tissue with more swelling and tenderness
Third-degree sprain
complete tearing of the ligament
Why are sprains so painful?
because these areas are rich in nerve endings
Possible assessment of a third-degree sprain
a gap in the muscle may be observed or palpated if the muscle is torn
What are the most common areas where sprains occur?
the ankle and wrist
What is a strain?
an excessive stretching of a muscle and its facial sheath. It often also involves the tendon
Classifications of strains
first-degree, second-degree, third-degree
First-degree strain
mild or slightly pulled muscle
Second-degree strain
moderate or moderately pulled muscle
Third-degree strain
severely pulled muscles
Clinical manifestations of strains and sprains
pain, edema, decrease in function, edema; Pain aggravated by continued use is common
Prevention of falls in the older adult
*use ramps instead of stairs
*eliminate scatter rugs
*treat pain from arthritis
*use walker or cane
*weight control
*regular exercise
*good shoes
*do activities slowly
What can happen with a severe sprain?
it may result in an avulsion frature or may put the joint into dislocation or subluxation
What is an avulsion fracture
a fracture where a ligament pulls lose a fragment of bone
Hemarthrosis
bleeding into a joint space or cavity
treatment for third-degree sprains
they usually require surgical suturing of the muscle and surrounding fascia
how does preconditioning exercise help a joint?
protects an in inherently weak joint because slow stretching is tolerated better by tissues than is quick stretching
How do warm-up exercises help
they prelengthen potentially strained tissues and they increase the temperature and metabolism of the muscle and better oxygenation
Benefits of stretching
thought to improve kinesthetic awareness
how do elastic support bandages or adhesive tape wrapping help in exercise?
they are thought to reduce the risk of sprains, but some think they may increase the risk of injury
impingement syndrome
entrapment of soft tissue structures under coracoacromial arch of the shoulder
treatment for impingement syndrome
NSAIDs; rest until sx decrease and then gradual ROM and strengthening exercises
Rotator cuff tear
tear within muscle ore ligaments of shoulder
treatment for minor rotator cuff tear
if minor, rest, NSAIDs, and gradual mobilization
treatment for major rotator cuff tear
Surgical repair
Shin splints
inflammation along tibial shaft from tearing away of tendons caused by improper shoes, overuse, or running on hard pavement
treatment for shin splints
rest, ice NSAIDs, proper shoes; gradual increase in activity; if pain persists, x-ray should be done to rule out stress fracture of tibia
Tendinitis
inflammation of tendon in uppor or lower extremity as a result of overuse or incorrect use
treatment for tendinitis
rest, ice, NSAIDs; gradual return to sport activity; protective brace(orthosis)may be necessary if sx recur
Ligament injury
tearing or stretching of ligament;
Symptoms of a ligament injury
sudden pain, swelling, instability
common cause of ligament injury
result of a direct blow
treatment for ligament injury
rest, ice, NSAIDs,; protection of the affected extremity by use of brace; if sx persist, surgical rapair may be necessary
meniscal injury
injury to fibrocartilage of the knee charactized by popping, clicking, or tearing sensation, swelling
treatment for meniscal injury
rest, ice NSAIDs; gradual return to regular activities; if sx persist, surgical arthroscopy to diagnose and repair meniscal injury may be necessary
What does immediate care of sprains and strains focus on?
RICE (rest, ice, compression, elevation) plus analgesia as necessary
RICE
rest, ice, compression, elevation
extremity movement in strains and sprains
movement should be limited and stopped if pain is felt
physiologic changes in cryotherapy
vasoconstriction and reduction in number of nerve transmissions
beneficial effects of cryotherapy
analgesia, anesthesia, reduction of muscle spasm, reduction of edema and inflammation, reduction of metabolic requirements
When is cryotherapy most useful?
right after the injury has occured
cryotherapy application
do not exceede 20-30 minutes per application with a warm-up time of 10-15 minutes between applications
Benefit of compression
helps limit swelling
What can swelling cause if left uncontrolled?
could lengthen healing time
How can you tell if a compression bandage is too tight?
numbness is felt in the area or there is cramping or additional pain or swelling beyond the edge of the bandage
application of compression
bandage can be left in place for 30 minutes and then removed for 15 minutes
positioning of sprained or strained extremity
should be elevated above the aeart level
why should the strained/sprained extremity be elevated?
reduce edema
when should the strained/sprained extremity be elevated
as much as possible, even while sleeping
How long does the acute phase of a sprain or strain usually last
24-48 hours
what kind of compresses should be applied after the acute phase of a sprain or strain
warm moist
Application of heat in sprains and strains
should not exceed 20-30 minutes with a cool-down period between applications
What do NSAIDs do for a sprain or strain
may be recommended to decrease edema and pain
should the patient use a strained or sprained limb?
yes, provided the joint is protected by means of casting, bracng, taping, or splinting
why should movement of a sprained or strained limb be encouraged?
movement of the joint maintains nutrition to the cartilage, and muscle contraction improves circulation and resulotion of the contusion
Application of heat in sprains and strains
should not exceed 20-30 minutes with a cool-down period between applications
What do NSAIDs do for a sprain or strain
may be recommended to decrease edema and pain
should the patient use a strained or sprained limb?
yes, provided the joint is protected by means of casting, bracng, taping, or splinting
why should movement of a sprained or strained limb be encouraged?
movement of the joint maintains nutrition to the cartilage, and muscle contraction improves circulation and resulotion of the contusion