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39 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What are the two major (and rather opposing) functions of the spine?
strength coupled with flexibility
Which spinal segments have a natural lordosis? Which a kyphosis?
Lordosis: cervical and lumbar
Kyphosis: thoracic and sacral
What is the anterior column of the spine?
From anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) through ventral 1/2 vertebral body
What is the middle column of the spine?
Dorsal 1/2 of the vertebral body to the posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL)
What is the posterior column of the spine?
Everything dorsal to the posterior longitudinal ligament (neural arch, facets, spinal canal, etc).
Anatomically define the pars interarticularis
Part of neural arch which lies between the superior and inferior articular processes
Define spondylosis
Degenerative changes of the spine
Define spondylolysis
Break of the pars interarticularis
Define spondylolisthesis
Anterior slippage of one vertebral segment on another
The "true" name of facet joints
Zygapophyseal joints
Are facet joints synovial?
Direction of movement of the vertebrae is determined by
the alignment/direction of the facet joint articulation
General orientation of the facet joints in the cervical spine
coronal plane
The orientation of the facet joints in the cervical spine causes it to resist what movements?
flexion (coronal orientation)
General orientation of the facet joints in the thoracic spine
between coronal and sagital planes
Orientation of facet joints in the lumbar spine
sagital plane
Orientation of the facet joints in the lumbar spine causes it to resist what movement?
Rotation (sagital); exception at L5-21
The facet joint orientation at L5-S1 is
nearly coronal
The main movements in the lumbar spine are
Flexion and extension
Flexion and extension in the lumbar spine is greatest at what segment
What kind of joint is the intervetebral disc?
secondary cartilaginous joint
The endplates of the intervetebral disc are made of
What part of the intervetebral disc truly acts as the shock absorber?
the annulus
The nucleus propolsus is primarily
The anterior longitudinal ligament (ALL) acts to resist
- extension
- translation
- rotation
The posterior longitudinal ligament (PLL) acts to resist
The ligamentum flavum acts to resist
The supraspinous ligaments act to resist
The interspinous ligaments act to resist
- separation of the spinous processes
- flexion
Function of the intertransverese ligaments?
? unclear, they are very weak
Origin of the latissimus dorsi
- caudal 6-7 thoracic vertebral spinouse processes and thoracolumbar fascia
Insertion of the latissimus dorsi
floor of the bicipital groove of the humerus
In the lumbar region the thoracolumbar fascia encloses the
quadratus lumborum
Attachments of the thoracolumbar fascia
- from C7-sacrum
- laterally to posterior angle of the ribs
- medially to tip of spinous processes
What are the 3 general layers of the paraspinals?
superficial, intermediate, deep
What makes up the superficial layer of the paraspinals?
- splenius muscles (only in cervical region)
What makes up the intermediate layer of the paraspinals?
Erector spinae:
- Iliocostalis
- Longissimus
- Spinalis
What makes up the deep layer of the paraspinals?
- Semispinalis
- Rotators
- Multifidus
What is the only back muscle with truly segmental innervation?