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109 Cards in this Set

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prevents diffusion across intracellular space
tight junctions/zona occludens
where e-cadherins and actin filaments attach below zona occludens
zona adherens/ intermediate junction
make up desmosomes
desmosomes = macula adherens
with keratin
and desmoplaking
with a central channel that allows adjacent cells to communicate for electric/metabolic functions
gap junction
connects epithelial layer to underlying ec matrix
hemidesmosome
supports overling up/ maintains integrity of b. membrane
integrin
clipping injury
medial collateral ligament
medial meniscus
anterior cruciate ligament
site of tibial attachment
ACL and PCL
abnormal passive abduction seen in
torn mcl
+ anterior drawer sign
torn ACL
helps deltoid abduct arm
supraspinatus
laterrly rotates arm
infraspinatus
adducts and laterally rotates arm
teres MINOR
medially rotates and adducts arm
subscapularis
skeletal muscle contraction
ca binds troponin C
troponin C release troponin I
troponin I releases tropomyos
tropomyosin uncovers actin binding site
myosin head binds actin
contraction (no atp use)
myosin head releases old adp
new atp binds my. head
REALEASE (atp used)
myosin returns to start pos.
tropomyosin covers actin
troponin i covers tropomyos.
troponin c covers tropnin i
Ca-atpase pumps ca to ser
phospholambin prot. inhibits ca/atpase
muscle condution -> contraction
AP -> open voltage-gated Ca channels -> NT release -> depolarization -> down t tubules -> dep of DHP receptor and ryanodine receptor -> ca release -> ca binds troponin c -> etc. -> contraction
shortened with contration
non-overlapping parts =
i band and h band
remains same length with contraction
a band (legth of myosin including overlap)
area of non-overlap bt 2 joining sarcomeres
i band
knob at center of myosin where cpk found
M line
muscle conduction -> smooth muscle contraction
ap -> sm membrane dep. -> voltage gated - ca channels open -> incr. cyt. Ca -> Ca-calmodulin -> activate myosin light-chain kinase -> cross bridge formation -> activate mlc phosphatase -> contraction
impaired fibroblast growth factor receptor mutation
achondroplasia
pain in weight-bearing joints after use without systemic symptoms with heberden's and bouchard's nodes
osteoarthritis -
heberdene - dip
bouchard - pip
thick capsule + synovial hypertrophy + osteophyte + narrowed cartilage + sclerotic bone
osteoarthritis
bone and cartilage erosion + increased synovial fluid + pannu
RA
location of pannus formation
pip
mcp
reduced bone mass in spite of normal bone mineralization
osteoporosis
vertebral crush fracture + colles' fracture
osteoporosis
osteoporosis treatment
bisphosphonate or pulsatile pth
thickened, dense bones due to failure of bone resorption
osteopetrosis
soft bones due to defective mineralization of osteoid
osteomalacia/rickets
cystic spaces lined by osteoclasts, filled with fibrous stroma and sometimes blood
von recklinghausen syndrome/ osteitis fibrosa cystica
high serum ca
low serum ph
high alk. phophatase
von recklinghausen syndrome
N serum ca
N serum ph
N serum alkaline ph
with anemia, thrombocytopenia, infection
osteopetrosis/marble bone disease
abnormal bone architecture due to increase osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity
paget's disease - osteitis deformans
n serum ca, ph, pth
high alk. ph
paget's disease
bone replaced by fibroblasts, collage, and irregular bony trabeculae
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
polyostotic fibrous dysplasia + multiple bone lesions + endocrine abn. like precoccious puberty + skin pigmentation
albright's syndrome
giant cell arteritis + pain/stiffness at shoulder and hips
polymyalgia rheumatica
cd8 T-cell induced injury to myofibers + symmetrical prox. muscle weakness
polymyositis
cd8 induced prox. muscle weakness + "shawl and face" skin rash
dermatomyositis
labs of polymyositis
high CK
high Aldolase
+ ANA
anti-jo-1
antiribonuclear protein
mixed conn. tissue disease
anti ro and la + parotid enlargement + risk of b-cell lymphoma
sjogren's syndrome
causes of gout
lesch-nyhan syndrome
prpp excess
decreased u. acid excretion
glucose-6-phosphatase def.
thiazide diuretics
needle shape and - birefringent
gout crystals
monosodium urate crystals
gout
calcium pyrophosphate crystals
pseudogout
weakly + birifringent rhomboid stones
pseudogout
widespread noncaseating granulomas + elevated serum ace levels
sarcoidosis
ankylosis + uveitis + aortic regurgitation
AS
urethritis + uveritis + arthritis - post gi or chlamydia infection
reiter's syndrome
fibrosis, collagen deposition, and sclerosis of skin, cardiovascular, gi, and kidneys
scleroderma
anti-topoisomerase
PSS
anti-scl-70
diffuse scleroderma
anti-smooth muscle ab
diffuse scleroderma
anticentromere ab
crest syndrome
scleroderma with limited skin involvement
crest
highly contagious honey crusted superficial skin lesion
impetigo
inflammatory purritic skin disorder with these etiologies: allergy, chemical injury, or infection
dermatitis
pruritic eruptions at flexors associated with atopic diseases
eczema (atopic dermatitis)
type 4 hypersensitiviey that follows exposure to allergen and occurs at site of contact
allergic contact dermatitis
+ auspitz sign, increased s. spinosum, decreased s. granulosum
psoriasis
deposits of igA at the tips of dermal papillae
dermatitis herpetiformis
purple papules and vesicles at dermoepidermal junction
lichen planus
associated with infections, drugs, cancer, and autoimmune disease - skin lesions
erythema multiforme
flat, pigmented squamous ep prolif. with keratin-filled cyts
seborrheic keratosis
brown pre-malignant lesions due to sun exposure
actinic keratosis
tumor of c. tissue follows trauma to skin
keloid
igG abs against epidermal basement membrane hemidesmosomes
bullous pemphigoid
potentially fatal autoimmune skin disoder onvolving bullae of oral mucosa and skin
pemphigous vulgaris
igG abs to apidermal cell surface desmosomes
pemphigous vulgaris
warts on hands
verruca vulgaris
warts on genitals
condyloma accuminata
keratin "pearls" associated to sunligh and arsenic
squamous cell carcinoma
island of tumors with mucinous dermous and pearly papules
basal cell carcinoma
depth of tumor correlates with risk of mets
melanoma
cartilaginous neoplasm mc at distal extremities
(en)chondroma
cartilaginous neoplasm mc at pelvis, spine, scapula, humerus, tibia, or femur
chondrosarcoma
"soap bubble" appearance on x-ray; at epiphyseal end of LONG bones
giant cell tumor
tumor of metaphysis that interlaces trabeculae with osteoblasts long tibia/femur
oseoma
metaphyseal tumor at long bones; mc malignant tumor of bone
osteosarcoma
predisposed with paget's disease, bone infarcts, radiation, and familial retinoblastoma
osteosarcoma
mature bone with cartilaginous cap that may malignantly transform to chondrosarcoma
osteochondroma
diaphysis tumor at long bones with "onion-skin" appearance
ewing's sarcoma
thrombangiitis obliterans in heavy smoker
buerger's disease
"pulseless disease" with granuloma at aortic arch, fever, night sweats, weak pulses in upper extremities
takayasu's arteritis
polymyalgia rheumatica with vasculitis and jaw claudication
giant cell arteritis
hep b + and multiple aneurysms and constrictions of medium-sized muscular arteries
polyarteritis nodosa
c-anca+ with granulomas in lung and glomerulonephritis
wegener's granulomatosis
pruritic eruptions at flexors associated with atopic diseases
eczema (atopic dermatitis)
type 4 hypersensitiviey that follows exposure to allergen and occurs at site of contact
allergic contact dermatitis
+ auspitz sign, increased s. spinosum, decreased s. granulosum
psoriasis
deposits of igA at the tips of dermal papillae
dermatitis herpetiformis
purple papules and vesicles at dermoepidermal junction
lichen planus
associated with infections, drugs, cancer, and autoimmune disease - skin lesions
erythema multiforme
flat, pigmented squamous ep prolif. with keratin-filled cyts
seborrheic keratosis
brown pre-malignant lesions due to sun exposure
actinic keratosis
tumor of c. tissue follows trauma to skin
keloid
igG abs against epidermal basement membrane hemidesmosomes
bullous pemphigoid
potentially fatal autoimmune skin disoder onvolving bullae of oral mucosa and skin
pemphigous vulgaris
igG abs to apidermal cell surface desmosomes
pemphigous vulgaris
warts on hands
verruca vulgaris
warts on genitals
condyloma accuminata
keratin "pearls" associated to sunligh and arsenic
squamous cell carcinoma
wegener's like without granuloma
microscopic polyangiitis - p-anca
vasculitis limited to kidney
primary pauci immune crescentic glomerulonephritis
granulomatous vasculitis with eosinophilia
churg-strauss syndrome
arteriovenous malformation in small vessels
telangiectasia