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48 Cards in this Set

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Ehlers Danlos Syndrome
Defect in peptidyl lysine hydroxylase which is involved in the synth of type 3 collegen
Osteogenesis imperfecta
Genetic defect in Type 1 collagen
blue sclera
Alport Syndrome
Hereditary Nephritis
Type 4 collagen
Renal failure and deafness
Chrondocyte hormonal control
Stimulated by thyroid hormone, testosterone, GH
Inhibited by
cortisone and estradiol
Ryanodrine receptor vs Dihydropiridine receptor
Dihydropiridine receptor is a voltage sensing Ca++ channel in the ttubule of striated muscle next to it plugging the SR is the ryanodrine Ca receptor.
Heberdens nodes
Bouchard nodes
Osteoarthritis
Heberdens nodes - DIP
Bouchards - PIP
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
Caused by hyperparathyroidism
brown tumor
cystic spaces lined with osteoclasts filled with fibrous stroma and blood.
High serum Ca low serums phos, and high alk phos
Osteopetrosis
Marble bone disease
failure of nl bone resorption
thickened dense bones.
Abnl fx of osteoclasts
Nl serum
Pagets disease
osteitis deformans
incr osteoblastic and osteoclastic activity
Elevated Alkaline Phos
Polymyalgia Rheumatica
Ass with Temporal arteritis
>50 elevated ESR, tx with prednisone
Polymyositis/dermatomyositis
Incr CK, Incr Aldolase
Positive anti-Jo-1
Mixed CT dz
raynauds phenomenon
arthraligias, myalgias, fatigue, esophageal hypomotility,
Abs - to U1RNP
Sjogrens
parotid enlargement
incr risk of Bcell lymphoma
Abs to ribonucleoprotein, SS-A (Ro) and SS-B (La)
SLE
Anti DS DNA
Anti Smith
ANA - sensitive but not specific
Wire loop in kidney nephrotic
Celiac Sprue
Ass with dermatitis herpetiforms
Jejunum
15% lead to malignancy- (Tcell lymphoma)
Sarcoid Associations
Gammaglobinemia
Rheumatoid Arthritis
ACE incr
Interstial Fibrosis
Noncaseating Granulomas

epithelial granulomas with schaumann and asteroid bodies
hypercalcemia due to incr conversion to Vit D in epithelioid histiocytes.
Diffuse Scleroderma vs CREST
Diffuse - more severes - Scl-70
CREST - more confined to hands and face - antiCentromere abs
Psoriasis
Incr stratum spinosum, decr straum granulosum
Epidermal hyperplasia -acanthosis
Parakeratotic scaling -nuclei remain in stratum corneum
Auspitz Sign
Psoriasis
Most common primary malignant tumor of bone
Osteosarcoma
10-20 yr men
Metaphysis
Ass - pagets, bone infarct, radiation, retinoblastoma
Ewing Sarcoma
11:22 translocation
Onion skin appearance
Anaplastic small blue cell malignant tumor.
Boys <15
extremely aggressive, early mets
diaphysis of long bones
Giant cell tumor of bone
(where does it go)
likes epiphysis end of long bones.
locally aggressive - benign
soap bubble appearance
Osteochondroma
most common benign tumor of bone
men <25 yo
long metaphysis
Enchondroma
intramedullary bone.
benign cartilaginous neoplasm
distal extremity
Temporal Arteritis
medium and large art carotid often.
Granulomatous
incr ESR
PAN
necrotizing immune complex inflammation of med to small musc art. typically involving renal and visceral vessels
Lesions of different ages
Hep B ass
Aneurysms and constrictions
Wegners Granulomatosis
triad of focal necrotizing vasculitis, necrotizing granulomas in lungs, necrotizing glomerulonephritis
C-ANCA
Microscopic Polyangiitis
Wegners without granulomas
Primary Pauci Immune Crescentic glomerulonephritis
vasculitis limited to kidney
Churg Strauss
Granulomatous vasculititis with eosinophillia
lung, heart, skin, kids, nerves. Atopic pts
Henoch Schonlein purapura
most common form of chidhood systemic vasculititis.
skin rash arthraligia intestinal hemorrhage abdominal pain, melena.
Gout
Acute: colchicine depolymerize microtubules impairing chemotaxis and degranulation
Indomethacin less toxic
Chronic: probenecid inhibits reabsorption of uric acid and inhibits secretion of penicillin
Etanercept
TNF receptor that bind TNF alpha
Tx - RA, psoriasis, anklyosing spondylitis
Infliximab
TNF-alpha abs
Crohns, RA, anklylosing spondylitis
alpha interferon
hepatitis B and C
Kaposi Sarcoma
Leukemia
Malignant melanoma
beta interferon
MS
Gamma interferon
Chronic granulomatous Dz
Oprelvekin (Il-11)
Thrombocytopenia
Syringomeylia
Cape like loss of P+T
Flaccid paralysis of the intrinsic muscles of the hand
Damage to ventral white commisure and ventral gray horns.
Median Nerve is found btw what 2 muscles
Flexor carpi radialis
Palmaris Longus
Tibial nerve to foot goes btw what two muscles
Tom Dick AN Harry
Tibialis posterior, Flexor digitorum Longus, Post Tibial Artery, TIBIAL NERVE, Flexor Hallucis Longus

Tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus are flipped in calf. Digitorum is more medial.
Femoral Triangle
Femoral artery comes out below the inguinal ligament, medial to the adductor longus, and lateral to sartorius

within the femoral sheath (femoral art/vein) you can get a femoral hernia in women.
NAVEL
Rectus femoris origin and insertion

where do the rest of the quad muscles originate
origin Anterior Superior Iliac spine
inserts on tibial tuberosity

rest of the Vastus muscles originate on the shaft of the femur

All 4 heads insert on tibial tuberosity
Where would thigh adductors and internal rotators originate
On the pubic tubercle.
Hip flexors
insert on the lesser trochanter of the femur

Psoas and Ileacus
Critical Blood supply of femur head
Medial Circumflex femoral
retinacular branches
Obturator Nerve what it does
Adductors of leg
Adductor - brevis, longis, magnus
Gracilis
Adductors of leg
origins and insertion
orginate on pubic tubercle
insert on post femur