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29 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
unhappy triad
caused by clipping from the lateral side
damage to MCL, ACL, and MM
Rotator cuff
supraspinatus, infraspinatus, teres minor, subscapularis
helps deltoid abduct arm
laterally rotates arm
Teres minor
adducts and laterally rotates arm
medially rotates and adducts arm
RC impingment syndrome
impingement of supraspinatus due to repetative overhead activity and/or narrow supraspinatus outlet
empty can test
shoulder dislocation
head of humerus rotates out of glenoid cavity
shoulder separation
clavicle separates from acromion and coracoid process of scapula
structures damaged in an anterior shoulder dislocation
axillary nerve, supraspinatus, anterior glenuhumeral ligaments and glenoid labrum separation from articular surface of anterior glenoid neck, posterolateral humeral head defect
AD; failure of longitudinal bone growth (epiphyseal plate not working right); membraneous ossification not affected
impaired cartilage maturation in growth plate caused by FGF receptor maturation
mechanical wear and tear; pain in weight bearing joints after use, improving with rest, no systemic symptoms
AI inflammatory disorder affecting synovial joints with pannus formation joints (MCP, PIP), subQ rheumatoid nodules, ulnar deviation, sublux
RF- IgM against IgG contant
morning stiffness improving with use; symmetric joint involvement, systemic sxs
reduction in bone mass in spite of normal bone mineralization
vertebral crush fractures, acute back pain, loss of height, distal radius fractures
age, smoking, long term corticosteroid use, heparin use, decreased testosterone, estrogen, white, thin, not exercising, vit D def, poor Ca intake
OP treatment
bisphosphonates (inhibit osteoclastic activity, increased GERD), vit D, Ca, exercise, avoid smoking, PTH, calcitonin, testosterone, estrogen, raloxifene
failure of normal bone resorption - thickened dense bones
bone function is due to abnormal function of osteoclasts
serum Ca, P and alk phos are normal
decreased marrow space
defective mineralization of osteoid - soft bones; vit D def in adults-->decreased Ca-->increased PTH-->decreased P
Osteitis fibrosa cystica
caused by hyperparathyroidism; characterized by brown tumors- high serum calcium, low serum phosphorus, , high alk phos
abnormal bone architecture caused by increased in OB and OC activity
serum Ca, P, and PTH are nl; alk phos is elevated; may have high output CHF or fxs, bone pain and bone deformity; may lead to osteosarcoma
Polyostotic fibrous dysplasia
bone is replaced by collagen, irregular bony trabeculae
albrights - multiple unilateral bone lesions associated with endocrine abnl and unilateral pigmented skin lesions
osteoid osteoma
interlacing trabeculae of woven bone surrounded by osteoblasts, less than 2 cm and foudn in proximal tibia and femur
same as osteoid osteoma, but larger and found in vertebral column
giant cell tumor
at epiphyseal ends of long bones; peak incidience at 20-40 years; locally aggressive benign tumor often around distal femur, proximal tibial region
double bubble, soap buble; MNGC
most common benign bone tumor; mature bone with cartilaginous cap; men <25; originates from long metaphysis; malignant transformation to chrondrosarcoma is rare
benign cartilaginous neoplasm found in intramedullary bone; usually distal extremities
most common primary malignant tumor of bone; peak incidence in men 10-20; metaphysis of long bones; predisposition include pagets, bone infarcts, radiation, familial RB; see Codmans triangle
anaplastic blue cell malignant tumor; boys < 15; extremely aggressive with early mets but responsive to chemo; onion skin appearance; in diaphysis; 11;22 translocation
malignant cartilaginous tumor; men 3-60; in pelvis, spine, scapula, humerus, tibia or femur; may be of primary origin or from osteochrondroma
expansile glistening mass within medullary cavity