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158 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Name the connective tissue that:
a) Conects muscle to bone
b) Connects bone to bone
a) tendon
b) ligament
The muscle's attachment to the non-moving bone
Origin
The muscle's attachment to the bone being moved
Insertion
Broad, flat sheet of tendonous tissue which unites sheets of muscles to each other or to bones
Aponeurosis
How many aponeurosis sheets in the body?
3
What is the part of the muscle between the tendons?
Belly
How much of a muscle's energy is used for muscular contraction?
20-30%
Most of a muscle's energy is expended on what?
Heating the body
What causes a muscle to move something? (Expansion OR Contraction)
Contraction
Which aponeurosis is found near the stomach? (2 names)
Rectus sheath/
Ventral aponeurosis
What is the transparent, elastic connective tissue which connects muscles to the skin or binds adjacent muscles?
Fascia
What is it called when two muscles work in opposite directions, with inverse origins and insertions across the same joint?
Antagonistic pairs
Muscles which work together to complete the same movement
Synergistic
The proper name for the Achilles tendon
Calcaneal tendon
Give an example of a synergistic muscle pair
Gastrocnemius with the Soleus underneath; both form the calf
To straighten a joint- increasing the angle at the joint
Extension
To bend at a joint decreasing the angle at the joint
Flexion
To move an extremity towards the mid-saggital plane
Adduction
To move an extremity away from the mid-sagittal plane
Abduction
List 5 functions of the muscular system
Movement/ locomotion
Propel body fluids
Move food through GI tract
Warmth
Protect organs
To turn the palm upwards
Suppination
To turn the palm downward
Pronation
To move a structure about its axis (e.g.- shaking head)
Rotation
When the distal end of a limb is moving in a circle while the proximal end end remains fixed
Circumduction
To decrease the size of an opening
Sphincter
The lumen expands
Dilation
The lumen contracts
Constriction
To point the toes towards the nose
Dorsiflexion
To extend the foot so that the toes point inferiorly (tip toes)
Plantarflexion
To turn the feet so that the soles face each other
Inversion
To turn the feet so that the soles face outward
Eversion
Cutting muscles at right angles to the fibers at the belly
Transect
To fold cut muscles back to their origins and insertions
Reflection
What percentage of the male body is composed of muscles?
40%
What percentage of the female body is composed of muscles?
20%
What are striations on the muscles?
Small stripes visible from underneath the microscope
What types of muscles are striated?
Skeletal and cardiac
Which of the 3 types of muscles is/are voluntary?
Skeletal
Which of the 3 types of muscles is/are involuntary?
Smooth and cardiac
What is skeletal muscle composed of?
Bundles of muscle fibers bound by fascia
The _____ eventually becomes the tendons.
Fascia
The cell membrane in muscle cells
Sarcolemma
List five examples of skeletal muscles which are not attached to bone
Intrinsic muscles of the tongue
Lips
Top 2" of esophagus
Parts of the diaphragm
Anal sphincter
Muscle cells have high amounts of which organelle?
Mitochondria
Describe mitosis of muscle cells
Nuclei split, but no cytokinesis occurs, resulting in multiple nuclei per cell.
An individual is born with as many muscle cells they will have their whole life-- they just grow large
Where in a striated skeletal muscle cell are the nuclei located?
Up against the sarcolemma
How many nuclei in a cardiac muscle cell?
One
How many nuclei are found in a skeletal muscle cell?
Polynuclei (more than 1 typically)
Where in cardiac muscle cells are the nuclei located?
Centrally
What shape are cardiac muscle cells?
Rectangular with 3-D branching
What types of cells generate the electrical impulses to keep cardiac muscle cells contracting in rhythm?
Pacemaker cells
What are the specialized areas of the sarcolemma where cardiac muscle cells butt up and transfer nerve impulses?
Intercalated discs
Which blood vessel takes blood AWAY from the heart?
Artery
Which blood vessel carries blood TOWARDS the heart.
Vein
The average adult cardiac muscle cell contracts ___ times per minute.
72 times
Explain how the nervous system affects cardiac muscle cells.
The heart is independent of the brain and can beat outside of the body.
The nervous system can alter the rate and strength of contractions.
The directions left and right are in respect of the patient/ observer (choose 1).
Patient
The top two chambers of the heart are called the _____.
Atria
(Atrium- singular)
The bottom two chambers of the heart are called the ______.
Ventricles
The heart makes two thumps for each beat. This is because the _____ and the ______ contract as separate systems.
Ventricles, Atria
(Don't need to know order)
The ____ is the thick muscular wall separating the left and right halves of the heart.
Septum
Unoxygenated blood travels to the heart in this blood vessel
Vena cava
The vena cava takes unoxygenated blood from the body to this chamber
Right atrium
The one-way openings between different chambers of the heart that cause the "thump"
Valve
Unoxygenated blood goes from the right atrium to the ______
Right ventricle
Blood leaves the right ventricle through the _______
Pulmonary artery
The pulmonary artery takes blood from the _____ to the ______
right ventricle of the heart, right or left lung
The ______ carries unoxygenated blood from the right ventricle to the lungs
Pulmonary artery
Oxygenated blood is carried from the lungs to the heart via the ______.
Pulmonary vein
The pulmonary vein carries blood from the _____ to the _____.
Left or right lung, left atrium
The left atrium pumps blood to the ______.
Left ventricle
Oxygenated blood leaves the left ventricle into the ______.
Aorta
The main artery out of the heart is the ______.
Aorta
The exchange of waste, CO2, and O2 occurs between cells and the blood at the _______
Capillaries
Smooth muscle shape
(2 terms)
Spindle shaped
Fusiform shaped
Where are the nuclei in smooth muscle cells?
Centrally located
Smooth muscle contracts and retracts:
Quickly/ Slowly (choose 1)
Slowly (and rythmically)
The proper name for the movement of food down the esophagus
Peristalsis
The formal name for "puking"
Reverse peristalsis
What do the contractions on a smooth muscle look like?
A wave heading down the muscle
The open hole in the middle of a tube
Lumen
The smooth ER of a muscle cell
sarcoplasmic
Prefix that means muscle
Sarco-
Muscles are _______ by motor neurons.
Innervated
Muscles are activated by _________.
Motor neurons
Smooth muscles mainly found in the _____. (General term)
Viscera
What are viscera?
Internal organs
List 5 places where smooth muscles are found.
Walls of blood vessels
Intestines
Uterus
Bladder
Stomach
To keep all muscles ready for action at any moment, your body does this:
Randomly contracts muscles to exercise the muscles
When a few motor units contract randomly throughout muscle (Term)
Tonus
This will not allow any muscle to contract or refract
Tetanus
A muscle contracts by _______________.
Filaments slide over each other using ATP
What are the darker bands or striations?
Where the filaments overlap
Muscles on sides of head
Temporalis
Temporal lets you do this:
Wiggle ears
Somewhat contributes to mastication
Muscle that inserts on mastoid and originates on clavicle and sternum
Sternocleidomastoid
Sphincter around the eye
Orbicularis oculi
Orbicularis is derived from the word meaning _______
Circular
Sphincter around the lips
Orbicularis oris
The muscle that is found around cheeks that passes under zygomatic arch
Masseter
The masseter alows you to ____
Chew
Formal name for chewing
Mastication
Muscle by the front of your forehead
Frontalis
The frontalis allows you to _______
Raise eyebrows
2 names for tendonous sheet of the head
Epicranial aponeurosis
Galea aponeurotica
The main muscle of the chest
Pectoralis (Pecs)
Epi=_____
Top
Brachii=_____
Arm
Main muscle of the front of the arms
Biceps brachii
Motion of the biceps brachii
Flexion of arms
Originates on proximal head of humerus
Inserts on ulna and radius
Biceps brachii
Main muscle of back of the arm
Triceps brachii
Antagonistic to biceps brachii
Triceps brachii
Motion of triceps brachii
Extension of the arm
Major muscle of shoulder
Deltoid
Span of the deltoids
Scapula to distal head of humerus
Broad muscle of back
Trapezius
Shape of trapezius
Kite-shaped
Finger like projection muscles under arms that attach to ribs
Serratus anterior
Broad, flat muscle that goes from thoracolumbar fascia to sides of body
Latissimus dorsi
Muscles between the ribs
Intercostals
Purpose of the intercostals and serratus anterior
Expand and contract the chest cavity for breathing purposes
Deepest layer of the abdominal muscles
Transverse abdominus
Deep to one layer of abdominal muscles but superficial to the bottom layer
Internal obliques
Most superficial of abdominal muscles
External obliques
Abdominal muscles that go like this:
\\ ////
External obliques
Abdominal muscles that go like this:
//// \\
Internal obliques
Abdominal muscles that go like this:
== ==
Transverse abdominus
Abdominal muscles that go like this:
||| |||
Rectus abdominus
Rectus means ____
Straight
The rectus abdominus is found where
Completely enveloped by the rectus sheath
Causes a six-pack
Reactus abdominus
"Line of white"
Linea alba
Centerline of the ventral aponeurosis
Linea alba
Dome-shaped muscle
Diaphragm
Main breathing muscle
Diaphragm
Dividing line for the abdomen and thorax
Diaphragm
Aponeurosis of the back
Thoracolumbar fascia
Bigger of the butt muscles (in humans)
Gluteus maximus
Smaller of the butt muscles (in humans)
Gluteus medius
Small muscle that is mostly fascia
Tensor fascia latae
Where are the hamstrings?
Back of thigh
What are the quadriceps?
Front of thigh
Main muscle of the hamstrings
Biceps femoris
Main muscle of the quadriceps
Rectus femoris
Largest muscle
Quadriceps
Runs from iliac crest to proximal hird of tibia
Sartorius
Italian for tailor
Sartorius
Medial sides of thighs along the femur
Gracilis
Superficial of calf muscles
Gastrocnemius
Deeper of calf muscles
Soleus
The gastrocnemius and soleus are synergistic in what motion?
Plantarflexion
3 names of the tendon of the heel
Achilles tendon
Calcaneal tendon
Tendocalcaneous
Front of the lower leg
Tibialis anterior
Tibialis anterior does this mothon
Dorsiflexion
Patella imbedded in this
Patellar tendon/ ligament
The patellar tendon goes from the ____ to the ____
Rectus femoris, Patella
The patellar ligament spans from the _____ to the _____
Patella, Tibial tuberosity