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71 Cards in this Set

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What muscles make up the Splenius Group?
Splenius capitis
Splenius cervicis
There are two
What is the function of the splenius capitis?
Extension of the head and neck, rotation to same side
What is the origin and insertion of the splenius capitis?
O-SP of C7-T1
I-lateral occipital bone
What is the function of the splenius cervicis?
Extension of head and neck, rotation to same side
What is the origin and insertion of the splenius cervicis?
O-SPof T3-T6
I-TP of upper 2-4 cervical vertebrae
What muscles make up the Erector spinae group?
ilicostalis, longissimus, and spinalis
There are three
Describe the Splenius group of muscles?
they attach to the head, most superficial, they act as bandage over deep muscles, they arise midline and run lateral
What is the function of the ilocostalis muscle?
Extension of the vertebral column
What is the origin and insertion of the iliocostalis muscle?
O-ilolumbar fascia to lower ribs, lower ribs to upper ribs
I-TP of cervical vertebrae
What is the function of the longissimus muscle?
Extension of the head and vertebral column
What is the origin and insertion of the longissimus muscle?
O-SP of upper lumbar to TP to TP
I-Occipital bone
What is the function of the spinalis muscle?
Extension of the head and vertebral column
What is the origin and insertion of the spinalis muscle?
O-SP of L2-T11, SP to SP
I-occipital bone
Name the Erector spinae group of muscles, from lateral to medial
Iliocostalis, longissimus, spinalis
"I like spines"
Which way do the Erector spinae group of muscles run?
straight up and down
Where are the Erector spinae muscles in relation to the Splenius muscles?
They lie just deep to the Splenius group
Name the muscles in the Transversospinalis group?
Semispinalis, and multifidus
There are two
What is the function of the semispinalis muscle?
Extension of the neck and head, also rotation to the opposite side of the muscle action
What is the origin and insertion of the semispinalis muscle?
O-T1 on TP
I-4-6 levels from their origin up to the occipital bone
What is the function of the multifidus muscle?
small movements of extension between vertebrae, and extension of the vertebral column
What is the origin and insertion of the multifidus?
O-posterior surface of sacrum, TP of lumbar and thoracic vertebrae
I-SP of all vertebrae up to C2, skips 2-4 levels
Describe the transversospinalis muscle group?
they run TP-SP, they run deep to the erector spinae group, they are shorter in length than other groups, they run laterally to medially
Name the muscles in the Suboccipital group?
Rectus capitis posterior minor, rectus capitis posterior major, obliquus capitis superior, obliquus capitis inferior
there are 4
Where are the suboccipital muscles in relation to the other extensor muscle groups?
They are the deepest group
What type of joint is the temporomandibular joint?
synovial and bicondylar
Where are the articulations of the temporomandibular joint?
the mandible and temporal bone
What are the movements of the temporomandibular joint?
elevation-closure
depression-opening
protrusion-jut out bottom jaw (underbite)
retraction-bring back(overbite)
rotation or lateral movements-side to side
What are the muscles of mastification?
Temporalis, masseter, medial pterygoid, and lateral pterygoid
There are 4
What is the function of the temporalis muscle?
elevates and closes jaw
What is the origin and insertion of the temporalis?
O-temporal fossa
I-coronoid process of mandible
What is the origin and insertion of the temporalis?
O-temporal fossa
I-coronoid process of mandible
What is the function of the masseter muscle?
elevates mandible
What is the origin and insertion of the masseter muscle?
O-Zygomatic process, temporal bone, and Zygomatic bone
I-angle of lateral surface of ramus of mandible
What is the function of the medial pterygoid muscle?
side to side movement and assists in elevation
What is the origin and insertion of the pterygoid muscle?
O-medial portion of lateral pterygoid plate of sphenoid bone
I-medial surface of angle of mandible
What is the function of the lateral pterygoid muscle?
protrudes mandible, assists in depression
What is the origin and insertion of the lateral pterygoid muscle?
O-lateral pterygoid plate and wing of sphenoid
I-Anterior part of mandibular condyle
What are some of the muscles of facial expression?
orbicularis oculi, orbicularis oris, nasalis, platysma
What is the funcion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
separately-rotation to the opposite side
together-neck flexion
What is the origin and insertion of the sternocleidomastoid muscle?
O-manubrium of sternum and medial 1/3 of clavicle
I-mastoid process of temporal bone
What are the ventral muscles of the cervical body wall?
Hyoid muscles
What is the importance of the hyoid muscles?
they are involved in swallowing(like Adam's apple, support hyoid bone)
Name the lateral muscles of the cervical body wall?
scalenes(external, middle, and inner layer)
What is the origin, insertion, and function of the external layer of the scalene muscles?
O-TP's of last 2-3 cervical vertebrae
I-second rib
A-lateral flexion
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the middle layer of the scalene muscles?
O-TP's of last 6 cervical vertebrae
I-first rib
A-lateral flexion
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the inner layer of the lateral scalene muscles?
O-C3-C6 TP's
I-first rib
A-lateral flexion
Where do the scalene muscles sit in relation to each other?
external layer(posterior), sits most posterior
middle layer(middle)
inner layer(anterior), sits most anterior
What is the subvertebral muscle of the cervical body wall?
Longus colli
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the longus colli?
O-anterior tubercles of 3rd-5th cervical vertebrae and bodies of lower cervical and 1st three thoracic vertebrae
I-anterior surface of cervical vertebrae bodies
A-flexion of cervical vertebrae
What are the muscles of the thoracic body wall?
Rectus sternalis, external intercostals, and diaphragm
Describe the rectus sternalis. (The ventral muscle of the thoracic body wall)
It attaches from the lower costal cartilages to upper sternum and costal cartilages, it is absent in 75% of population, it has no significant actions
What is the origin, insertion,action, and orientation of the external intercostals? (the lateral muscles of the thoracic body wall)
O-inferior border of rib
I-superior border of rib
A-pulls ribs together
orientation: angled downward and to the front; fills whole space front to back/top to bottom
What is the origin, insertion, action, and orientation, of the middle internal intercostals?
O-inferior border of rib
I-superior border of rib
A-pulls ribs together
orientation-angled downward and to the back; between ext. and int. layers
What is the origin, insertion, action, and orientation of the innermost intercostals?
O-inferior border of rib
I-superior border of rib
A-pulls ribs together
orientation-generally straight up and down; doesn't reach all the way to sternum or vertebral column
What is the origin,insertion, and action of the diaphragm?
O-inner surface of xiphoid process, costal cartilages, ribs, & lumbar vertebrae
I-central tendon of diaphragm
A-breathing; when activated it flattens out (it is barrier between throracic and abdominal cavities)
Is the Longus colli muscle part of the cervical and thoracic body wall groups?
Yes
Name the muscles of the abdominal body wall.
Rectus abdominis, external oblique, internal oblique, transverse abdominis, and quadratus lumborum, and psoas major
What is the origin, insertion, action, and structure of the rectus abdominis? (the ventral muscle of the abdominal body wall)
O-crest of pubis
I-costal cartilage of ribs 5,6, and7
A-pulls rib cage downward in the process flexes the lumbar vertebral column
structure-tendenous intersections: segmented
linea alba: the white line, separates 2 muscles; a line of connective tissue
What is the origin, insertion, action, and architecture of the external oblique? (the lateral muscle of abdominal body group)
O-external surfaces & inferior borders of lower 8 ribs
I-Linea alba; superficial to rectus abdominis
A-rotation to opposite side
architecture-Inguinal Ligament: bottom tendonous edge of this muscle
Aponeurosis: a flat fibrous sheet of CT that attaches mm to bone or other tissue; fascia
"hands in pockets"
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the internal oblique? (lateral abdominal wall muscle)
O-Lateral 1/2 inguinal ligament, anterior portion of iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia
I-costal cartilage of last 4 ribs and linea alba; surrounds rectus abdominis
A:rotation to same side
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the transversus abdominis? (lateral muscle of abdominal wall)
O-lateral 1/3 of inguinal ligament, anterior iliac crest, thoracolumbar fascia, cartilage of last 6 ribs
I-linea alba; deep to rectus abdominus
A-compresses abdomen
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the Quadratus lumborum? (lateral muscle of the abdominal body wall)
O-Posterior iliac crest
I-medial 1/2 12th rib and transverse processes of lumbar vertebrae
A-Extension and lateral flexion
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the Psoas major muscle? (subvertebral muscle of abdominal body wall)
O-lumbar vertebral bodies
I-lesser trochanter of femur
A-flexion at hip joint, assists in lateral rotation
Name the Scapular muscles?
Rhomboid major, rhomboid minor, levator scapulae, trapezius, serratus anterior, pectoralis minor, and subclavius
There are 7
What is the origin, action, function, structure, and relationship of the rhomboid major?
O-spinous processes of T2-5
I-Lower 1/2 of medial border of scapula
A-Retraction(adduction); downward rotation
Structure-flat, sheet-like
Relationships-deep to trapezius
What is the origin, insertion, action, structure, and relationships of the rhomboid minor?
O-SP's of C7-T1
I-Upper part of medial border of scapula
A-Retraction(adduction):downward rotation
Structure-thin, sheet-like
Relationship-Deep to trap
What is the origin, insertion, action, structure, and relationship of the levator scapulae?
O-TP's of C1-4
I-Superior angle of scapula
A-elevates, lateral flexion of neck
Structure-rounded little mass
Relationship-deep to trapezius
What is the origin, insertion, action, structure, and relationship of the trapezius?
O-occipital bone, SP's of C7 and all thoracic vertebrae
I-lateral 1/3 clavicle, spine, and acromion of scapula
A-upward rotation, retraction(adduction),assists in elevation
Structure-actually 4 sided muscle, thin sheet
Relationship-most superficial
What is the origin, insertion, action, structure, and relationship of the serratus anterior?
O-outer surface of first 8-9 ribs
I-anterior edge of medial border of scapula
A-protraction(abduction), upward rotation
Structure-big sheet
Relationship-wedged between rib cage and scapula
What is the origin, insertion, action, structure, and relationship of the pectoralis minor?
O-sternal end of ribs 3,4, and5
I-coracoid process of scapula
A-downard rotation, protraction(abduction), depression
Structure-thin, sheet-like, fans out
Relationship-Underneath pectoralis major
What is the origin, insertion, and action of the subclavius?
O-Superior surface of junction of 1st rib and its cartilage
I-groove on inferior surface of middle of clavicle
A-downward rotation of clavicle