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22 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Cartilage
-Connective tissue that is softer and more flexible than bone.

-Chrondytes synthesize cartilage
Bone
Two types of bone:

1. Compact bone
2. Spongy bone
Compact bone
-Dense bone with no cavities.

-Made up of structural units called osteons

-Each osteon has a central channel known as a Haversian canal, surrounded by concentric circles of bony matrix called lamellae.
Spongy bone
-Less dense than compact bone.

-Consists of interconnecting lattic of bony spicules.

-The cavities are filled with either red or yellow marrow.

-Yellow marrow is inactive

-Red marrow is involved in blood cell formation.
Osteocytes
-Two types of cells found in bone:

1. Osteoblasts
2. Osteoclasts
Osteoblasts
-Synthesize and secrete organic constituents of bone matrix.

-Once they have been surrounded by their matrix, they turn into osteoclasts
Osteoclasts
-Large, multinucleated cells involved in bone resorption
Bone formation
Either through:

a) endochondral ossification

b) intramembranous ossification
Endochondral ossification
TYPE OF BONE FORMATION

-Exisiting cartilage is replaced by bone
Intramembranous ossification
TYPE OF BONE FORMATION

-Embryonic connective tissue is transformed into bone.
Muscle organization
1. Each muscle is made up of fibers

2. Each fiber has myofibrils embedded in them.

3. The myrofibrils are divided into sacromeres.

4. The myofibrils are enveloped by the sarcoplasmic reticulum (stores calcium).

5. The plasma of muscle fiber is called sarcoplasm.

6. Cell membrane is known as sarcolemma, which can make action potentials and is connected to a system of transverse tubules (T system).

7. The T system gives channels for ions to flow throughout the muscle.
Structure of Sacromere
1. Z lines - Define boundaries of a sacromere and anchor thin filaments.

2. M line - runs along center of sacromere

3. I band - contains only thin filaments

4. H zone - contains only thick filaments

5. A band - spans the entire length of thick filaments and overlapping portions of thin filaments. (During contraction, A band is not reduced in size, while H and I are)
Contraction
-When an action potential is generated, it goes along the sarcolemma and the T system into the muscle fiber.

-This causes sarcoplasmic reticulum to release calcium ions which initiates contraction of the sarcomere.

-Actin and myosin slide past each other, and the sarcomere contracts.
5 major types of muscle contraction
1. Isotonic

2. Concentric

3. Dynamic

4. Eccentric

5. Isometric
Isotonic
-Muscle shortens against a fixed load while tension on muscle is constant.
Concentric
-A type of dynamic contraction

-Muscle fiber shortens and the tension on muscle increases.
Dynamic
-Includes both concentric and eccentric

-Results in both change in length of muscle with change in tension on that muscle.
Eccentric
-Type of dynamic contraction

-Muscle fiber lengthens and tension on muscle increases.
Isometric
-Both ends of the muscle are fixed and no change in length occurs, but tension increases.
Smooth muscle
-Responsible for involuntary actions.

-Innervated by autonomic nervous sytem

-Nonstriated

-One nucleus per cell

-Smooth, continuous contractions
Cardiac Muscle
-Muscle tissue of the heart

-Striated (actin and myosin filaments arranged in sacromeres)

-One to two nuclei per cell

-Involuntary/autonomic nervous system

-Strong, forceful contractions
Skeletal Muscle
-Striated

-Multinucleated

-Voluntary/somatic nervous system

-Strong, forceful contractions