Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/138

Click to flip

138 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
skeletal muscle
form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system, that is it is voluntarily controlled.
cardiac muscle
type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histologic foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.
smooth muscle
an involuntary non-striated muscle
hypertrophy
the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ
myoblast
type of embryonic progenitor cell that gives rise to muscle cells (myocytes).
myotube
A developing skeletal muscle fiber with a tubular appearance.
myofiber
muscle fiber.
myofibril
a basic unit of a muscle. composed of long proteins such as actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that hold them together.
sarcomere
basic unit of a muscle. composed of long, fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax.
myoglobin
an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue
epimysium
a layer of connective tissue, which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium.
perimysium
a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 to 100 or more) or fascicles.
endomysium
a layer of connective tissue that ensheaths a muscle fiber and is composed mostly from reticular fibers. It also contains capillaries, nerves, and lymphatics. It overlies the muscle fiber's cell membrane: the Sarcolemma.
satelite cell
cells present in nervous and muscle tissue, whose numbers diminish with age, which are involved in repair when damage occurs. They are capable of migration, reorientation, can proliferate, form myoblasts and myotubes, and form long cytoplasmic tails that act as tethers when they migrate
fascicle
a bundle or a cluster.
Z line
the borders that separate and link sarcomeres within a muscle. a narrow, darkly staining cross-striation that bisects the I band of skeletal muscles.
Z disk
another name for Z line
I band
the band within a striated myofibril, seen as a light region under the light microscope and as a dark region under polarized light.
A band
the dark-staining zone of a sarcomere, whose center is traversed by the H band.
M line
the narrow dark band in the center of the H band.
actin
a protein that participates in many kinds of cell movement, including muscle contraction, during which it interacts with filaments of a second protein, myosin
myosin
a protein of the myofibril, occurring chiefly in the A band; with actin it forms actomyosin, which is responsible for the contractile properties of muscle.
myosmesin
an end line protein that is part of the M line. It is a protein found in the M-band of muscle sarcomeres in association with M-protein. It is found in both slow and fast muscle fibers while M-protein is only found in fast fibers.
tropomyosin
an actin-binding protein that regulates actin mechanics. It is important for muscle contraction.
troponin (I, C, and T)
a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction[2] in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.
desmin
a type III intermediate filament found near the Z line in sarcomeres.
vimentin
a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells.
dystrophin
rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane.
transverse tubule (T tubule)
a deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the plasma membrane, only found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. These invaginations allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior of the cell.
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a muscle cell (skeletal, cardiac, and smoooth muscle). It consists of a true cell membrane, called the plasma membrane, and an outer coat made up of a thin layer of polysaccharide material that contains numerous thin collagen fibrils.
sarcoplasm
a muscle fiber is comparable to the cytoplasm of other cells, but it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes (granules of stored glycogen) and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen binding protein.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
The special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in smooth and striated muscle fibers whose function is to store and release calcium ions.
terminal cisternae
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules. These discrete regions within the muscle cell store calcium
triad
structure in skeletal muscles, formed by a T tubule surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
diad
a structure in the cardiac myocyte located at the sarcomere Z-line. It is composed of a single t-tubule paired with a terminal cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS)
Ach
abbreviation for acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase
a serine protease that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and cholinergic brain synapses, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission.
myoneural junction
the site of apposition between a nerve fiber and the motor end plate of the skeletal muscle which it innervates.
motor endplate
The large and complex terminal formation by which the axon of a motor neuron establishes synaptic contact with a striated muscle fiber.
motor unit
single α-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates
acetylcholine receptor
an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
white fibers
absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.
red fibers
appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin. These fibers are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use oxidative metabolism to generate ATP.
muscle spindle
sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.
intrafusal fibers
skeletal muscle fibers that comprise the muscle spindle and are innervated by gamma motor neurons. These fibers are a proprioceptor that detect the amount and rate of change of length in a muscle.
nuclear chain fibers
a specialized sensory organ contained within a muscle. intrafusal fibers which, along with nuclear bag fibers, make up the muscle spindle responsible for the detection of changes in muscle length.
nuclear bag fibers
type of intrafusal muscle fiber that lies in the center of a muscle spindle. Each has a large number of nuclei concentrated in bags and they cause excitation of both the primary and secondary nerve fibers.
periazial space
a fluid-filled cavity surrounding the nuclear bag and myotubule regions of a muscle spindle.
Golgi tendon organ
a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibers into the tendons of skeletal muscle. It provides the sensory component of the Golgi tendon reflex.
myocyte
type of cell found in muscles. They arise from myoblasts
intercalated disks
complex adhering structures which connect single cardiac myocytes to an electrochemical syncytium and are mainly responsible for force transmission during muscle contraction.
fascia adherens
a ribbon like structure that stabilizes non-epithelial tissue. It's a broad intercellular junction in the longitudinal sections of an intercalated disk of cardiac muscle anchoring actin filaments. It helps to transmit contractile forces.
fasciae adherentes
plural of fascia adherens
diad
a structure in the cardiac myocyte located at the sarcomere Z-line. composed of a single t-tubule paired with a terminal cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling
fusiform
means having a spindle-like shape that is wide in the middle and tapers at both ends.
caveolae
invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types
calmodulin
a calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells. a multifunctional intermediate messenger protein that transduces calcium signals by binding calcium ions and then modifying its interactions with various target proteins.
myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin II
myasthenia gravis
is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatiguability
muscular dystrophy
a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion.
myogenic
refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation.
atrial granules
membrane-bound spherical granules with a dense homogeneous interior that are concentrated in the core of sarcoplasm of the atrial cardiac muscle, extending in either direction from the poles of the nucleus, usually near the Golgi complex; they are the storage site of atrial natriuretic peptide.
atrial natriuretic peptide
a powerful vasodilator, and a protein (polypeptide) hormone secreted by heart muscle cells. It is involved in the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, potassium and fat
peptide
short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds.
ANP
atrial natriuretic peptide
dense bodies
electron-dense portions of smooth muscle which thin filaments(actin and tropomyosin namely) bind
rigor mortis
a chemical change in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate.
skeletal muscle
form of striated muscle tissue existing under control of the somatic nervous system, that is it is voluntarily controlled.
cardiac muscle
type of involuntary striated muscle found in the walls and histologic foundation of the heart, specifically the myocardium.
smooth muscle
an involuntary non-striated muscle
hypertrophy
the increase in the volume of an organ or tissue due to the enlargement of its component cells.
hyperplasia
increase in number of cells/proliferation of cells. It may result in the gross enlargement of an organ
myoblast
type of embryonic progenitor cell that gives rise to muscle cells (myocytes).
myotube
A developing skeletal muscle fiber with a tubular appearance.
myofiber
muscle fiber.
myofibril
a basic unit of a muscle. composed of long proteins such as actin, myosin, and titin, and other proteins that hold them together.
sarcomere
basic unit of a muscle. composed of long, fibrous proteins that slide past each other when the muscles contract and relax.
myoglobin
an iron- and oxygen-binding protein found in the muscle tissue
epimysium
a layer of connective tissue, which ensheaths the entire muscle. It is composed of dense irregular connective tissue. It is continuous with fascia and other connective tissue wrappings of muscle including the endomysium, and perimysium.
perimysium
a sheath of connective tissue that groups muscle fibers into bundles (anywhere between 10 to 100 or more) or fascicles.
endomysium
a layer of connective tissue that ensheaths a muscle fiber and is composed mostly from reticular fibers. It also contains capillaries, nerves, and lymphatics. It overlies the muscle fiber's cell membrane: the Sarcolemma.
satelite cell
cells present in nervous and muscle tissue, whose numbers diminish with age, which are involved in repair when damage occurs. They are capable of migration, reorientation, can proliferate, form myoblasts and myotubes, and form long cytoplasmic tails that act as tethers when they migrate
fascicle
a bundle or a cluster.
Z line
the borders that separate and link sarcomeres within a muscle. a narrow, darkly staining cross-striation that bisects the I band of skeletal muscles.
Z disk
another name for Z line
I band
the band within a striated myofibril, seen as a light region under the light microscope and as a dark region under polarized light.
A band
the dark-staining zone of a sarcomere, whose center is traversed by the H band.
M line
the narrow dark band in the center of the H band.
actin
a protein that participates in many kinds of cell movement, including muscle contraction, during which it interacts with filaments of a second protein, myosin
myosin
a protein of the myofibril, occurring chiefly in the A band; with actin it forms actomyosin, which is responsible for the contractile properties of muscle.
myosmesin
an end line protein that is part of the M line. It is a protein found in the M-band of muscle sarcomeres in association with M-protein. It is found in both slow and fast muscle fibers while M-protein is only found in fast fibers.
tropomyosin
an actin-binding protein that regulates actin mechanics. It is important for muscle contraction.
troponin (I, C, and T)
a complex of three regulatory proteins (troponin C, troponin I and troponin T) that is integral to muscle contraction[2] in skeletal and cardiac muscle, but not smooth muscle.
desmin
a type III intermediate filament found near the Z line in sarcomeres.
vimentin
a type III intermediate filament (IF) protein that is expressed in mesenchymal cells.
dystrophin
rod-shaped cytoplasmic protein, and a vital part of a protein complex that connects the cytoskeleton of a muscle fiber to the surrounding extracellular matrix through the cell membrane.
transverse tubule (T tubule)
a deep invagination of the sarcolemma, which is the plasma membrane, only found in skeletal and cardiac muscle cells. These invaginations allow depolarization of the membrane to quickly penetrate to the interior of the cell.
sarcolemma
cell membrane of a muscle cell (skeletal, cardiac, and smoooth muscle). It consists of a true cell membrane, called the plasma membrane, and an outer coat made up of a thin layer of polysaccharide material that contains numerous thin collagen fibrils.
sarcoplasm
a muscle fiber is comparable to the cytoplasm of other cells, but it houses unusually large amounts of glycosomes (granules of stored glycogen) and significant amounts of myoglobin, an oxygen binding protein.
sarcoplasmic reticulum
The special type of smooth endoplasmic reticulum found in smooth and striated muscle fibers whose function is to store and release calcium ions.
terminal cisternae
enlarged areas of the sarcoplasmic reticulum surrounding the transverse tubules. These discrete regions within the muscle cell store calcium
triad
structure in skeletal muscles, formed by a T tubule surrounded by sarcoplasmic reticulum
diad
a structure in the cardiac myocyte located at the sarcomere Z-line. It is composed of a single t-tubule paired with a terminal cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum.
acetylcholine
a neurotransmitter in both the peripheral nervous system (PNS) and central nervous system (CNS)
Ach
abbreviation for acetylcholine
acetylcholinesterase
a serine protease that hydrolyzes the neurotransmitter acetylcholine. found at mainly neuromuscular junctions and cholinergic brain synapses, where its activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission.
myoneural junction
the site of apposition between a nerve fiber and the motor end plate of the skeletal muscle which it innervates.
motor endplate
The large and complex terminal formation by which the axon of a motor neuron establishes synaptic contact with a striated muscle fiber.
motor unit
single α-motor neuron and all of the corresponding muscle fibers it innervates
acetylcholine receptor
an integral membrane protein that responds to the binding of acetylcholine, a neurotransmitter.
white fibers
absence of myoglobin and a reliance on glycolytic enzymes. These fibers are efficient for short bursts of speed and power and use both oxidative metabolism and anaerobic metabolism depending on the particular sub-type. These fibers are quicker to fatigue.
red fibers
appear red due to the presence of the oxygen binding protein myoglobin. These fibers are suited for endurance and are slow to fatigue because they use oxidative metabolism to generate ATP.
muscle spindle
sensory receptors within the belly of a muscle, which primarily detect changes in the length of this muscle.
intrafusal fibers
skeletal muscle fibers that comprise the muscle spindle and are innervated by gamma motor neurons. These fibers are a proprioceptor that detect the amount and rate of change of length in a muscle.
nuclear chain fibers
a specialized sensory organ contained within a muscle. intrafusal fibers which, along with nuclear bag fibers, make up the muscle spindle responsible for the detection of changes in muscle length.
nuclear bag fibers
type of intrafusal muscle fiber that lies in the center of a muscle spindle. Each has a large number of nuclei concentrated in bags and they cause excitation of both the primary and secondary nerve fibers.
periazial space
a fluid-filled cavity surrounding the nuclear bag and myotubule regions of a muscle spindle.
Golgi tendon organ
a proprioceptive sensory receptor organ that is located at the insertion of skeletal muscle fibers into the tendons of skeletal muscle. It provides the sensory component of the Golgi tendon reflex.
myocyte
type of cell found in muscles. They arise from myoblasts
intercalated disks
complex adhering structures which connect single cardiac myocytes to an electrochemical syncytium and are mainly responsible for force transmission during muscle contraction.
fascia adherens
a ribbon like structure that stabilizes non-epithelial tissue. It's a broad intercellular junction in the longitudinal sections of an intercalated disk of cardiac muscle anchoring actin filaments. It helps to transmit contractile forces.
fasciae adherentes
plural of fascia adherens
diad
a structure in the cardiac myocyte located at the sarcomere Z-line. composed of a single t-tubule paired with a terminal cisterna of the sarcoplasmic reticulum. plays an important role in excitation-contraction coupling
fusiform
means having a spindle-like shape that is wide in the middle and tapers at both ends.
caveolae
invaginations of the plasma membrane in many vertebrate cell types
calmodulin
a calcium-binding messenger protein expressed in all eukaryotic cells. a multifunctional intermediate messenger protein that transduces calcium signals by binding calcium ions and then modifying its interactions with various target proteins.
myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)
a serine/threonine-specific protein kinase that phosphorylates the regulatory light chain of myosin II
myasthenia gravis
is an autoimmune neuromuscular disease leading to fluctuating muscle weakness and fatiguability
muscular dystrophy
a group of muscle diseases that weaken the musculoskeletal system and hamper locomotion.
myogenic
refers to a contraction initiated by the myocyte cell itself instead of an outside occurrence or stimulus such as nerve innervation.
atrial granules
membrane-bound spherical granules with a dense homogeneous interior that are concentrated in the core of sarcoplasm of the atrial cardiac muscle, extending in either direction from the poles of the nucleus, usually near the Golgi complex; they are the storage site of atrial natriuretic peptide.
atrial natriuretic peptide
a powerful vasodilator, and a protein (polypeptide) hormone secreted by heart muscle cells. It is involved in the homeostatic control of body water, sodium, potassium and fat
peptide
short polymers of amino acid monomers linked by peptide bonds.
ANP
atrial natriuretic peptide
dense bodies
electron-dense portions of smooth muscle which thin filaments(actin and tropomyosin namely) bind
rigor mortis
a chemical change in the muscles after death, causing the limbs of the corpse to become stiff and difficult to move or manipulate.