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47 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
functions of muscle
movement, stability, controls openings and passageways & heat production
3 layers of connective tissue that surround muscle fibers/cells, muscle fascicles & muscles
Endomysium = inside
Perimysium = middle
Epimysium = outside
superficial & deep fascia
fascia sorrounds muscle fibers, allows for muscles to glide over each other & allows for muscles to stretch 2 layers
origin & insertion
origin of the muscle is the end of the muscle attaching to the fixed bone : insertion attached to moving part of the joint
function of tendons & aponeuroses
a cord or band of inelastic tissue connecting a muscle with its bony attachment, aponeuroses similar just flat and broad
intrinsic vs extrinsic muscles
intrinsic = stay in one region
extrinsic = action is outside of region
levers, mechanical advantage, disadvantage
class 1 = either
class 2 = mech advantage
class 3 = mech disadvantage
class 1 lever
force - folcrum - load

head tilting, like a crow bar or teeter totter
class 2 lever
folcrum - load - force

standing on tippy toes, like a wheelbarrow
class 3 lever
folcrum - force - lever

elbow, like a catapult
prime mover/ agonist
muscles that are primarily responsible for generating a specific movement
synergist
assist in performing, the same set of joint motion as the agonists
antagonist
used to describe a muscle that acts in opposition to the agonist and is returns a limb to its initial position
fixator
The fixators prevents any unecessary movement,
components of a muscle cell (myofibril or muscle fiber)
sarcolemma, T tubule, sarcoplasmic reticulum, myofibril, sarcomere
sarcolemma
= cell membrane, essential in cell stimuli, and fuses to tendons at the ends of the muscle cells
T tubule
small tubules which run transversely striated muscle fiber and electrical impulses are transmitted
sarcoplasmic reticulum
a system of tubules that surround muscle fibrils, release calcium ions then absorb them.
myofibril
a muscle fibril, one of the slender threads of a muscle fiber, composed of numerous myofilaments.
sarcomere
the contractile unit of a myofibril; sarcomeres are repeating units, delimited by the Z bands, along the length of the myofibri
3 types of muscle
skeletal, cardiac, smooth
structures or the sarcomere
myosin, actin, tropomyosin, troponin
myosin
interacts with the protein actin to contract a muscle or cell movement. Myosin is present in the myofibrils
actin
localized in the I band of the myofibrils; acting along with myosin, it is responsible for contraction and relaxation
tropomyosin
actin binding protein, regulates actin, which regulates the muscle from contracting and relaxing
troponin
Troponin is attached to the protein tropomyosin and lies within the groove between actin filaments in muscle tissue. In a relaxed muscle, tropomyosin blocks the attachment site for the myosin crossbridge, thus preventing contraction. When the muscle cell is stimulated to contract by an action potential, calcium channels open in the sarcoplasmic reticulum and release calcium into the sarcoplasm. Some of this calcium attaches to troponin, causing a conformational change that moves tropomyosin out of the way so that the cross bridges can attach to actin and produce muscle contraction.
components of muscle striations
Z line, M line, A band, H band, I band.
Z line
zig zag ends of the sarcomere
M line
Mid line direct center of sarcomere
A band
Thick filament band that is fixed and does not move, connected to cross bridge
H band
center zone around the M line
I band
moving piece thin filament slides along the thick filament by way of the cross bridge
neuromuscular junction
contraction the signal passes through the neuromuscular junction via the neurotransmitter acetylcholine.
muscle contraction components
motor neuron, axon, neurotranmitter, synapse, neuromuscular junction
motor unit
When a motor unit is activated, all of its fibers contract.
effects 2 types slow twitch and fast twitch
axon
long, slender projection of a neuron, that conducts electrical impulses away from the neuron's cell body
neurotransmitter
Neurotransmitters are endogenous chemicals which transmit signals from a neuron to a target cell across a synapse
synapse
a junction that permits a neuron to pass an electrical or chemical signal to another cell.
role of acetylcholine
binds to acetylcholine receptors muscle fibers, it opens sodium channels in the cell membrane.
role of aceytlcholinesterase
enzyme that activity serves to terminate synaptic transmission.
action potential
when the threshold is met voltage-gated ion channels open
sodium in potassium out.
phases of muscle twitch
latent, contraction, relaxation
latent phase
stimulus application until the muscle begins to contract. no activity there are electrical and chemical changes
contraction phase
the muscle fibers shorten, the tracings will show during this phase
relaxation
downward curve when the muscle is going back to its original state of relaxation and will once again lengthen
absolute vs relative refractory periods
absolute = not possible action potential
relative = unlikely action potential but possible
contraction types
twitch, treppe, wave summation, tetany