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99 Cards in this Set

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Type I fibers are ________ used for ___________.
aerobic; endurance
These fibers make up 1/3 of muscle fibers, rich in mitochondria and myoglobulin, stain very lightly w/ mhyosin atpase
type I (aerobic) fibers
These fibers make up 2/3 of all muscle fibers, glycogen rich, fast-contracting myosin, dark fibers on staining, susceptible to metabolic insult during prolonged periods of disuse.
anaerobic (type II) fibers
A given motor neuron will innervate ______ fiber type(s), and the fiber type is determined by the ________.
one; neuron
What muscle disease? Progressive, genetically determined; degeneration of skeletal muscle, wasting, weakness, increaesd serum creatine kinase
Muscular dystrophy
What ist the most common form of muscular dystrophy?
Duchenne's
What muscle disease? Def. Of dystrophin, X linked, weakness initially in proximal extremity muscles and pelvic girdle, pseudohypertrophy of calf muscles, GOWER's sign, die in early 20's or teens.
Duchenne's
What is the sign called that is hard to get to a standing position from squatting?
Gower's sign
What is the milder form of Duchenn'es muscular dystrophy called?
Becker's (appears later in life--this is how you tell because Duchenn'es usually appears in children)
What muscle disease? Autosomal nt, triple nucleotide repeat, symptoms begin as , weakness of hands and foot muscles initially, Hatchet Face, inc frequency of cardiomyopathy, cataracts, and diabetes
myotonic dystrophy
What is the second most common muscular dystrophy?
myotonic dystrophy
T or F: myotonic dystrophy can worsen in subsequent generations.
true, the triple nuclotide repeat mutation is amplified
What are the autoimmune muscle disorders?
Myasthenia gravis, polymyosiitis/dermatomyositis
Myasthenia gravis has all the following characteristics except: autoantibodies to acetylcholine receptors, men(20-35 yrs old) and women (50-60 yrs old), muscle weakness intensified by muscle use, associated with tumors of the thymus, thymic hyperplasia, ocular muscle droop (ptosis), diplopia, inability to chew
The men and women ages should be switched
What muscle disease? Chronic degenerative autoimmune process involving proximal muscles of extremities--weakness and pain walking up stairs, necrotic muscle surrounded by lymphocytes and plasma cells in biopsy
Polymyositis
What is polymyositis called when it involves the skin also?
dermatomyositis
what is the major symptom associated with dermatomyositis?
heliotrope (iliac rash) discoloration around the eyes
T or F: myotonic dystrophy involves only type I fibers
TRUE
What percent of tumors associated with myasthenia gravis are thymomas?
15%
What percent of thyus associated problems due to myasthenia gravis is thymic hyperplasia?
65%
What rare disorder is associated with small oat cell lung cancer?
Eaton Lambert syndrome
What is the most common soft tissue sarcoma in children (malignant)
Rhabdomyosarcoma
What is the most common cause of peripheral nueropathy?
Diabetes
In infectious myositis, _________ causes tetanus, __________causes gas gangrene, parasites cause __________, and the virus involved is ____________.
clostridium tetani, clostridium perfringens, trichinosis, coxsackie virus
All of the following cause peripheral neuropathy except: diabetes, immune disorders, alcohol excess, Vitamin C deficiency, toxins, infection (AIDS), congenital
Vitamin C def. (Vitamin B DOES)
What are the supporting cells of the nervous system and form part of brain barrieer?
astrocytes
What forms the myelin around nerves in the CNS analagous to a schwann man cell?
oligodendrocytes
what cells line the cerebral ventricles?
ependymal cells
what nervous cells are scavenger cells?
microglia
What is the infectious agent in spongiform encephalopathies?
prions
T or F: prions have DNA
FALSE
T or F: prions have a short incubation period
FALSE
What is the prion caused disease in cow's?
bovine spongiform encephalopathy (mad cow disease)
What is the human form of mad cow disease?
creutzfeldt-Jakob disease
This disease is found in new guinea and is transmitted by eating infected brains
Kuru
Is MS Autoimmune or infectious?
It has been associated with both
____% of MS cases in US are caucasian
95%
T or F: MS is more common in tropical climates.
false; more common in moderate to cold climates
In MS, visual disturbances occur _____% of the time and limb weakness occurs______% of the time.
20; 40
What cells are destroyed in multiple sclerosis?
oligodendrocytes
MS affects the _______ matter of the brain
white
What disorder of the brain can thiamine deficiency cause?
beriberi (also Wernicke's encephalopathy and Wernicke's Korsakoff syndrome
Thiame def. Is most often seen in what population.
Piss drunks
What disease? Paralysis of extraocular muscles, ataxia, mental confusion
Wernicke's encephalopathy
What disease? Loss of recent memory, confabulation (making up stories)
Korsakoff's psychosis (repeated bouts of Wernicke's)
Vit B12 deficiency can cause all of the following except: high pressure, uncoordinated movements, abnormal gait, psychiatric symptoms
High pressure (doesn't mention anything about pressure)
Nicotinic acid is AKA ______
Vitamin B3
Nicotinic acid def. Causes the 3 D's: Dermatitis (photosensitivity), Diarrhea and __________.
Delirium
What is the most common cause of dementia in the elderly?
Alzheimer's disease
What disease? Slow progressive memory loss, genetic in small #'s, Neurofibrillary tangles and plaques, atrophy of cerebral cortex
Alzheimer's disease
A telltale sign of Alzheimer's Disease is __________ sulci and ________ gyri.
widened; narrowed
A patient with down syndrome survives past age 40. What neurological disorder are the patient's symptoms most likely to mimic?
Alzheimer's disease
What over-the-counter medicine is supposed to inhibit the effects of Alzheimer's?
NSAIDS (like ibuprofen)
What disease? Movement disorder, changes in extrapyramidal (involuntary) motor system, depigmented substantia nigra, Lewy bodies.
Parkinson's
The symptoms of Parkinson's include all of the following except: Pill rolling tremor, bradykinesia, dementia, instability while walking, flacidity, expresionless face.
Flacidity (should be rigidity)
T or F: there is a cure for parkinson's
FALSE
This cell is stained pink (eosinophilic) and is seen in Parkinson's disease
Lewy Body
Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, Huntington's corea, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are all ____________ diseases
degenerative
What disease? Abnormality in chromsome 4, increased CAG trinucleotide repeats
Huntington's (chorea)
What disease? Involuntary gyrating movements, progressive dementia, brain atrophy, caudate nucleus, clinical abnormalities present in 30's to 40's
Huntington's (chorea)
What is the "layman" name for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?
Lou Gehrig's disease
Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) presents w/ wasting and weakness of small muscles in hands, and is the loss of ________ cerebrospinal pathways in spinal cord.
Lateral
ALS is a progressive disorder of upper or lower motor neurons?
both
All of the following are characteristic of CNS neoplasms except: only 2% of cancer s, High mortality rate, Prominent in older age groups, 50% are primary, 50% metastasis
Prominent in older age groups (they are more prominent in younger age groups)
T or F: Primary malignant tumors of the CNS never metastasize
True dat, hippie
The four types of CNS tumors to remember are: Gliomas, Meningiomas, Medulloblastomas, and ___________.
retinoblastoma
What 2 subgroups of gliomas are there?
Astrocytoma, glioblastoma multiforme
What is the most common primary CNS tumor?
Glioblastoma multiforme (stage four astrocytoma)
An astrocytoma becomes a glioblastoma multiforme when it reaches grade ___.
Four
Astrocytomas occur in which part of the brain?
Cerebellum
What is the second most common CNS neoplasm?
Meningioma
All are characteristic of meningioma except: arise from the dura, rapid growth, compresses the brain
rapid growth
Meningiomas are characteristic of which of the following? Lewy bodies, caudate nucleus, pill-rolling tremor, psammoma bodies, depigmented substantia nigra?
Psammomma bodies (calcifications)
Meningiomas are benign or malignant?
benign
T or F: Benign meningiomas don't affect brain function.
False, because they compress the brain
Retinoblastoma is more common in kids or s?
kids
What area of the brain does medulloblastoma occur?
Cerebellum
All are characteristic of medulloblastoma except: more common in children, rapid growth, poor prognosis, psammoma bodies
Psammomma bodies (calcifications)
A ______ (hordeolum) is and acute supporative ______ infection of the hair folicle and associated glands of the eye.
Sty, staph
_______ is chronic inflammation of an obstructed meibomian gland often mistaken for a neoplasm.
Chalazion
__________, occuring in diabetics and other hyperlipidemic conditions, are small lipid plaques of foamy macrophages.
Xanthelasmas
________ aka "pink eye" is contagious and caused by a virus or bacteria.
Conjunctivitis
Viral conjuctivitis = _____ discharge and _____ vision.
watery, blurred
_______ conjunctivitis = purulent discharge and no blurring
bacterial
______ caused by chlamydia, are associated with ulcers and scarring leading to blindness.
Trachomas
Inflammation of the cornea is called ______.
keratitis
Hypertensive retinopathy leads to the formation of microaneurysms and hemorrhages into the retinal nerve fibers called ___________.
dot and flame hemorrhages
Edema of the optical disc is called _________ causing irreversible damage.
papiledema
Narrowing of retinal arterioles leads to a "copper wire effect" due to ____.
hypertensive retinopathy
Diabetic retinopathy promotes the formation of ______ and microaneurysms.
cataracts
Diabetic vessels are more permeable leading to edema and hemorrhage into the eye. This is known as ________ retinopathy and characterized by "________" and may lead to retinal detachment in severe cases.
background, "cotton-wool spots"
Due to progressive damage or atrophy to the optic nerve _______ causes peripheral loss of eyesight.
glaucoma
Which is not a risk factor of glaucoma: over 60, familial history of glaucoma, diabetes, farsightedness, smoking, black pt over 40.
farsighted, NEARsighted is correct.
Priamary glaucoma is idiopathic; secondary is related to a preexisting eye disease.
True; True
Secondary glaucoma is the most common form. T/F
FALSE
Priamary glaucoma can be classified as open or closed angle. Open angle is caused by _________.
INTERNAL blockage of eye's drainage canals = increased P
"Steamy cornea," rainbow halos around lights at night, acute onset intraocular pain and blurred vision are all due to ____ angle glaucoma caused by _______ drainage canal blockage.
closed, ENTERING
The most common cause of decreased vision in the US is _______, causing clouding of the lens due to the natural aging process.
Cataracts
The most common eye tumor of infants and young s.
Retinoblastoma - deletion of Rb gene