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30 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Saggital Plane
divides the animal into left and right unequal sides
Median Plane
Divides animal into equal halves along the spine
Transverse Plane
Divides animal into head and tail halves
Dorsal Plane
Divides the animal into back and belly (think of the dorsal fin on the back of a dolphin).
Cranial Direction
Toward the head
Rostral Direction
Toward the nose when referring to the head
Caudal Direction
Towards the tail
Dorsal Direction
Toward the back
Ventral Direction
Towards the belly
Medial Direction
Towards the inside of the body-towards the spine for example.
Lateral Direction
Towards the outside/side of the body
Deep Direction
Towards the center
Superficial Direction
Towards the surface
Proximal Direction
Towards the body (on an extremity)
Distal Direction
Away from the body (on an extremity)
Describe the levels the body is organized into
cells--tissues--organs--organ systems
What are the 4 elements that make up 95% of living tissue
carbon, oxygen, nitrogen, hydrogen
cells with no nucleus
cells with a nucleus
What are the 3 essential cell structures?
cell membrane, cytoplasm, nucleus
What are 2 functions of the cell membrane
Barrier between the inside cytoplasm and outside environment, Governs the movement of atoms and molecules
What are the 2 layers in the cell membrane?
hydrophilic and hydrophobic
Hyrophobic layer
1 of 2 layers of the cell membrane -inside layer
Hydrophilic layer
1 of 2 layers of the cell membrane-outside layer
an extension of the cell membrane that propels mucous and debris across the cell surface
inner substance of the cell
What are the 3 parts of the cytoplasm?
Cytosol, Inclusions, Organelles
fluid inside the cytoplasm that transports intracellular substances, both nutrients and waste
structures inside the cytoplasm that have specialized functions
an organelle in the cytoplasm of a cell, powerhouse of the cell, creates fuel for most metobolic processes, contains DNA and RNA enzymes to make protein.