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19 Cards in this Set

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Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

Heart:
biphasic action on M2 –

-At low levels it blocks presynaptic M1s and actually enhances Ach release
-At therapeutic doses it blocks M2 and increases HR by increasing A-V conduction
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

Blood Vessels
little change, toxic doses may cause flushing
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

GI Tract
--block secretions – salivatory most sensitive –DRY MOUTH. Gastric secretions less effectively
- constipation
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

Respiratory tract
– Inhibits secretions , bronchiodialation
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

Eye
Mydriasis + cycloplegia + increased IOP
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

GU
Urinary retention
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

EXOCRINE GLANDS:
--inhibit sweating, salivation, lacrimation “ Anhidrosis
Describe the effects of atropine on the major organ systems

CNS
- initial drowsiness,
- antitremor activity (BENZOTROPINE)
- with toxicity – excitement, agitation, hallucination
- Motion sickness (SCOPOLOMINE)
Similarities of pharmacological effects of atropine and scopolamine.
Atropine and scopolamine are the two Belladna alkaloids – naturally derived
Both competitive , reversible M antagonist’s w/ no blocking of N receptors – MOA IS SAME!!
They both prevent effects of Parasympathetic Stimulation esp w/ M3
contrast the pharmacological effects of atropine and scopolamine
Atropine is more potent on HEART, INTESTINE, BRONCHIAL MM is LONGER ACTING & has less CNS PROPERTIES


Scopolamine is more potent on IRIS, CILIARY MM, SECRETORY GLANDS, & CNS
contraindications for the use of all antimuscarinic agents
-glaucoma
-enlarged prostate
-constipation
Clinical use of Atropine
-Large doses for Cholenrgic poisoning

-Diarhea (LOMITIL =atropine + diphenyloxylate)

-GI/GU
Clinical use of Scopolamine
-Eye drops for Mydriasis
-Motion sickness
-GI/GU
Clinical use of Propantheline
- GI/GU
Clinical use of oxybutalin
- GI/GU
- Overactive bladder
Clinical use of ipratropium
(Atrovent)
Bronchial asthma, COPD
Clinical use of Benztropine
(Cogentin)
Anti-tremor for parkinsons
Identify signs & symptoms of atropine poisoning.
-widely dilated pupils
-dry mouth
-tachycardia
-flushed skin
-fever
-strange behavior, neurological symptoms
Identify treatment of atropine poisoning
Injection of small dose (1 mg) of physostigmine subcutaneously may be helpful – lack of effects confirms diagnosis.