• Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key


Play button


Play button




Click to flip

143 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
In seculum
Most used cantus firmus of 12th-13th century, mostly France. Often used as motet sources.
Polyphonic conductus
Sacred, non-liturgical, vocal composition for 2-4 voices. Some entertainment purpose, multi layered singing. Latin texts (poetic). Metrical. Can be liturgical, but often deals more with complaints about the church.
passages in polyphonic conductus that are untexted in the manuscript. Modern coda derives from this.
Franco of Cologne
German theorist and composer whose Ars cantus mensurabilis proposed that different durations should be expressed by different note shapes, and not merely by different contexts.
Petrus de Cruce
introduced the modern barline, using dots instead of lines. Part of transition into counterpoint; he thought a lot about consonances and dissonances.
Ars nova (treatise)
written by Philippe de Vitry. Established duple meter for the first time (with time signatures represented by circles and half circles).
Philippe de Vitry
Bishop who wrote the ars nova
Units of several notes with each unit having identical rhythm. Like in isorhythmic motets
Roman de Fauvel
elaborate allegory about a mule. Includes various styles of mono/polyphonic material including isorhythmic motets.
in isorhythmic music, an extended rhythmic pattern that repeats.
in isorhythmic music, repeated melodic pattern.
Guillaume de Machaut
the first great composer in music history. Canon (musical rule maker) at Rheims, Important figure in the transition between the new ideas that took hold in the decade around 1300 and the music of the late Middle Ages; as a poet-musician he brought together the traditions of secular monophony and the new techniques of the Ars Nova.
Messe de Notre Dame
composition by Guillaume de Machaut for the cathedral where Kings and Queens are coronated. For four voices, one of the earliest polyphonic settings of the Mass Ordinary.
The device of alternating rapidly between two voices, each resting while the other sings, as if a single melody is split between them; or a composition based on the device. Think “hiccup”.
Hoquetus David
Guillaume de Machaut composition from the 1360s for three voices. Tenor is designated hoquetus.
Cantilena style / ballade style / treble-dominated style
Polyphonic song not based on a cantus fimus;l used especially for polyphonic songs by English composers of the late thirteenth through early fifteenth centuries.
Trecento music
refers to the music of the 14th century (1300s)
Caccia / chace
literally means “hunt”. Italian form featuring two voices in canon over a free untexted tenor.
Jacopo da Bologna
Composer of trecento madrigali
Heinricus Isaac
Franco-Flemish composer
-served as singer/composer for Lorenzo de' Medici in Florence and as court composer for Maximilian I at Vienna and Innsbruck (two of the most important patrons in Europe)
-familiarity with many cultures of music made his output more pan-European than of his peers.
Jacob Obrecht
Franco-Flemish composer
-uses imitation more frequently and extensively in his compositions than previous composers
-wrote remarkably transparent and clear music.
-one of most famous composers of masses in the late 15th century
-born and trained in low countries
-his music combines northern and southern elements
-regarded as one of the most significant contemporaries of Josquin des Prez, and had an especially large influence on the subsequent development of music in Germany
-contributed to the rebirth of Italian music.
-music included masses, motets, songs in French, German, and Italian, as well as instrumental music. His best known work may be the lied Innsbruck, ich muss dich lassen
Pierre Attaingnant
-French music printer, active in Paris
-developed faster, cheaper, and more efficient method of printing in which each note was printed on its own individual staff (this method was more sloppy)
-He published over 1500 chansons by many different composers
-He was eventually named the Royal music-printer and librarian.
Parisian Chanson
-abandoned the formes fixes and were in a simpler, more homophonic style, sometimes featuring music that was meant to be evocative of certain imagery.
-Many of these Parisian works were published by Pierre Attaingnant.
Composers of this genre, as well as later composers, such as Orlando de Lassus, were influenced by the Italian madrigal.
Polyphonic Lied
15th century German songs for up to four voices singing together
-The tunes are usually sung by the middle part (tenor); often the parts accompanying the tenor are played on instruments.
-These polyphonic settings are addressed to educated scholars and clergy as well as nobles.
-Bar form and romantic texts predominate, some are through-composed
What is Augenmusik?
Augenmusik is a German term that means "eye music". It is also called note nere. A style of notation, common in mid-16th-century madrigal collections, in which short note-values were used to "blacken" the page. The dark page was used as a type of word painting. It is also called madrigale cromatico.
Who is Cipriano de Rore?
Cipriano de Rore: 2nd generation of madrigal composers. Born West of Brussels. Leading composer of 2nd generation of Italian madrigal composers. Worked under Willaert, after he died, he took over at St. Marks. He used chromatic harmonic progressions in his word paintings.
What is madrigale cromatico/note nere?
A style of notation, common in mid-16th-century madrigal collections, in which short note-values were used to "blacken" the page. The dark page was used as a type of word painting;use of short notes/black notes/“color”
Who is Orlando di Lasso?
He was a later Franco-Flemish composer. Adopted this name because he felt Italian. Originally born Roland de Lassu in Belgium near the French border.
Lasso wanted to express the meanings of the texts. Used word painting in his motets. Used more chromatic harmonies. In general, his compositionas are robust and witty. He died in 1594 and his sons edited his motets “Magnum Opus Musicum” (published in 1604). Composed a great deal of works: 150 italian madrigals, 90 german lieder, and instrumental works, etc.
What is a villanella/villanesca/villota?
A three- or four-voice strophic song, setting comic or rustic texts that became popular about 1535 .The text-setting was generally syllabic, the texture mainly homophonic, and a new musical phrase was used for each line of verse, with the opening and closing lines often repeated. The principal composers of the villanella in this form were G. T. di Maio and G. D. da Nola .By about 1545 the genre had reached northern Italy, where such composers as Willaert and Baldassare Donato composed villanescas for four voices. Marenzio also wrote vallanescas in the 1570’s. In this form the villanella achieved popularity in Germany and England.
Who is Luca Marenzio?
A native Italian composer of Italian madrigals in the 16th century. One of the two major composers of 4th generation Italian madrigals. He uses word painting in his madrigals. He wrote “Scaldava il sol"
Who is Carlo Gesualdo?
Prince of a region near Naples. Found his wife with another man, had them both killed. Killed his son too. Fled to Ferrara. One of the two major composers of 4th generation Italian madrigals. Wrote a piece with lots of chromatic notes and modulations. In his own six books of five-voice madrigals he took chromatic harmony to extremes, often creating striking dissonances.
What is a choral melody?
monophonic, strophic hymns (hymns with verses), German chants. Protestant equivalent of the Gregorian chants. Also, the tenors carry the cantus firmus.There were 4 sources of carols:
-Melodies often taken from Gregorian chants.
-Sometimes freshly composed pieces, even composed by Luther himself.
-Geisslerlider: Penitent songs. Date back to the 14th century.
Who is Ludwig Senfl?
After the church split, he was one of the leading composers of polyphonic music for the new church. one of the leading composers of polyphonic music for the new church was Senfl. A pupil of Isaac. Used choral melodies for cantus firmus material in elaborate motets. He continued to write catholic music too. Used choral melodies for cantus firmus material in elaborate motets. Swiss-born church musician, composer, and editor. He probably studied with Heinrich Isaac , the court composer, and in 1513 succeeded Isaac in that position.
What is the Council of Trent?
A council of the Roman Catholic Church convened by Pope Paul III in 1545 in Trent (then in the South Tyrol, now in northern Italy); it concluded the last of its 25 sessions in 1563 . It was an important embodiment of the ideals of the Counter-Reformation, held with the intention of clarifying doctrine and legislating disciplinary reforms within the church. The council's pronouncements on music included rather general condemnations of unintelligible and ‘impure’ settings. Among other things, they discussed the future of music in the catholic church (around 1560) (“Too much use of secular music in the mass” “Too much complicated counterpoint…” “Too many noisy instruments in church” “Too much disillusion among the singers”)
-music of the community
-type of polyphonic song in Spanish with several stanzas framed by a refrain
-originally secular, the form was later used for sacred works, especially associated with Christmas or other important holy days.
English song, usually on a religious subject, with several stanzas and a burden, or refrain.
-beginning in the 15th century, most carols were polyphonic.
William Cornish
An English composer, dramatist, actor, and poet
He is attributed with composing songs, which shed vivid light on the court cultures of Henry VII and especially Henry VIII .
Songs: "Ah, Robin," "Blow thy horn, hunter," and "Woefully arrayed."
In the early to mid sixteenth century this was a prelude in the style of an improvisation.
Sebastian Virdung
-born 1465
-German composer and theorist on musical instruments
-After being ordained, he became chaplain at the court in Heidelberg and sang in the choir as a male alto.
-Published his treatise Musica getuscht und angezogen, which was the first printed book on the subject. It covered theory of music, counterpoint and composition.
Francesco Landini
was an Italian composer, organist, singer, poet and instrument maker. A prominent composer during the Trecento period in Italy, also known as the “Italian ars nova”. 154 works can be attributed with certainty to Landini.
Mannerism/ars subtilior
a period of European art that emerged from the later years of the Italian High Renaissance around 1520. a musical style characterized by rhythmic and notational complexity. It lasted until about 1580, when a more Baroque style began to replace it.
Johannes Ciconia
a late medieval composer and music theorist who worked most of his adult life in Italy, particularly in the service of the Papal Chapels and at the cathedral of Padua.
English discant
In English discant the cantus firmus was sometimes in the upper voice rather than the tenor; the added voice could be in a number of different ranges and a technical device known as the ‘sight’, involving mental transposition, was applied in improvisation.
French for false bass, fauxbourdon consists of the cantus firmus and two other parts a sixth and a perfect fourth below. To prevent monotony, or create a cadence, the lowest voice sometimes jumps down to the octave, and any of the accompanying voices may have minor embellishments. Usually just a small part of a composition employs the fauxbourdon technique.
In medieval and early Renaissance English polyphonic music, gymel (also gimel or gemell) is the technique of temporarily dividing up one voice part, usually an upper one, into two parts of equal range, but singing different music. Often the two voices sing a passage of intricate polyphony, beginning and finally converging on a unison, and often, but not always, the other voices drop out for a time.
John Dunstable
was an English composer of polyphonic music of the late medieval era and early Renaissance period. Dunstaple liked to use full triadic harmony, along with utilizing the interval of the third. Of the works attributed to him only about fifty survive
Leonel Power
an English composer of the late Medieval and early Renaissance eras. Power was the one of the first composers to set separate movements of the Ordinary of the Mass which were thematically unified and intended for contiguous performance. only 40 extant pieces can be definitely attributed to him.
Contenance angloise
is the term used to describe a distinctive style of polyphony developed in fifteenth-century England. It used full, rich harmonies based on the third and sixth. It was highly influential in the fashionable Burgundian court. The phrase 'Contenance Angloise' was coined by Martin le Franc in a poem dedicated to Duke Philip the Good of Burgundy
O rosa bella
is a popular 15th century chanson originally attributed to John Dunstable, but now to John Bedingham. (need notes on this)
Cyclic Mass
In Renaissance music, the cyclic mass was a setting of the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass, in which each of the movements – Kyrie, Gloria, Credo, Sanctus, and Agnus Dei – shared a common musical theme, commonly a cantus firmus, thus making it a unified whole.
Guillaume Dufay
was a Franco-Flemish composer of the early Renaissance. As the central figure in the Burgundian School. his music was copied, distributed and sung everywhere that polyphony had taken root. He wrote masses, motets, chants, fauxbourden and secular music.
Ave regina caelorum (Dufay’s)
Mass consisting of five movements which open with identical statements of a unifying musical "motto.” each movement contains (in the tenor) one single and complete statement of the plainchant melody to the Marian antiphon Ave regina coelorum, Dufay's continual embellishment and rhythmic manipulation of this cantus firmus creates a much less stratified scoring than before. Essentially became Dufay’s requiem.
Gilles Binchoise
a Franco-Flemish composer, one of the earliest members of the Burgundian School. Most of his music, even his sacred music, is simple and clear in outline. Binchois wrote music for the court, secular songs of love and chivalry, music for the Dukes of Burgundy.
L’Homme arme
L'homme armé was a French secular song from the time of the Renaissance with the subject of the “armed man.” It was the most popular song used for musical settings of the Ordinary of the Mass: over 40 separate compositions entitled Missa L'homme armé survive from the period.
Johannes Ockegham
composer of the Franco-Flemish School in the last half of the 15th century. Surviving reliably-attributed works include some 14 masses (including a Requiem mass), an isolated Credo (Credo sine nomine), 5 motets, a motet-chanson (a deploration on the death of Binchois), and 21 chansons. Ockeghem used the cantus firmus technique in about half of his masses. Being a renowned bass singer himself, his use of wide-ranging and rhythmically active bass lines sets him apart from many of the other composers
Who is Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina?
Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina was a composer of the 16th century. From Palestrina (a village south of Rome). Apparently composed a polyphonic mass that “saved counterpoint”. In accordance with the requirements of the Council of Trent his compositions changed towards a simpler way of writing that enabled the words to be clearly heard.

Read more: Giovanni Pierluigi da Palestrina Biography - (b probably Palestrina, c. 1525 ; d Rome, 2 Feb. 1594 ) http://arts.jrank.org/pages/4954/Giovanni-Pierluigi-da-Palestrina.html#ixzz0ZiHjhfRZ
What is Missa Papae Marcelli?
Mass for six voices by Palestrina , composed c. 1561 . It is dedicated to Pope Marcellus II , who established the Council of Trent which sought to reform the composition of polyphonic sacred music so that the words were intelligible. Romantic legend has it that, because of the clarity with which Palestrina treated the text, with this mass he ‘saved church music’.
Who is Johann Joseph Fux?
Austrian composer and theorist in the early 18th century that wrote 400 church compositions, including some 80 masses—a few in a mock-Palestrina style, but the majority with supporting instruments in the late Baroque stylus mixtus. He also wrote operas and oratorios of majestic character, and a wide variety of chamber works.
What is Gradus ad Parnassum?
Gradus ad Parnassum is a musical treatise written by Johann Joseph Fux in 1725.
provided an exposition of traditional contrapuntal theory of unusual clarity.
Who is Tomas Luis de Victoria?
A composer of the 16th century that worked in Spain, in Victoria. Maybe Palestrina’s pupil. He published collections of masses and motets. He wrote 20 masses, including Missa pro victoria (a battle mass based on Janequin's chanson La Bataille), and the Missa ‘Ave regina coelorum’ and Missa ‘Alma Redemptoris mater’ (based on his own antiphons). He wrote expressive and emotional music.
Musica getutscht
Treatise published by Sebastian Virdung
Described and explained how to play instruments including the clavichord, recorder, and lute.
Large lute (plucked string instrument) with extra bass strings, used especially in the seventeenth century for performing basso continuo as accompaniment to singers or instruments.
-various types of lutes
At first, in the Renaissance, the term was applied to the treble lute
-A Renaissance stringed instrument of the guitar family
-one of the few metal-strung instruments known from the Renaissance period. It generally has four courses (single, pairs or threes) of strings, one or more course being usually tuned in octaves.
- The cittern may have a range of only an octave between its lowest and highest strings and employs a "re-entrant" tuning - a tuning in which the string that is physically uppermost is not the lowest
vihuela da mano
-Guitar-like string instrument usually with 12 paired strings made of gut from 15th-16th century Spain.
-Tuned almost like a modern guitar, with the exception of the third string, which was tuned a semitone lower.
What is Magnum opus musicum?
“Magnum Opus Musicum” is a collection of Orlando di Lasso's motets. He died in 1594 and his sons edited his motets and published them in 1604. He used word painting and chromatic harmonies in his motets.
Who is Thomas Tallis?
A 16th century English composer that wrote liturgical works, anthems, canticles, and motets. By 1543 he had been appointed a Gentleman of the Chapel Royal, a position he held for the rest of his life. Latterly he acted as organist, sharing the job with his close friend William Byrd . In 1575 he and Byrd were granted a royal privilege to print music; later that year they issued a book of motets, Cantiones sacrae, dedicated to Queen Elizabeth, to which both composers contributed 17 pieces, one each for every year of the queen's reign. Also, he wrote instrumental music for solo keyboard and viol consort.
Luis de Milan/El Maestro
-Spanish Renaissance composer, vihuelist, and writer on music.
-First composer in history to publish music for the vihuela de mano.
-One of the first musicians to specify verbal tempo indications in his music.
viola da gamba
-Bowed, fretted, stringed musical instruments developed in the mid-late 1400s and used primarily in the Renaissance and Baroque periods.
-Typically had 6 gut strings
In nomine
-A title given to a large number of pieces of English polyphony, predominantly instrumental music, first composed during the 16th century.
-In Nomines are typically consort pieces for four or five instruments, especially consorts of viols. One instrument plays the theme through as a cantus firmus with each note lasting one or even two measures. The other parts play more complex lines, often in imitative counterpoint.
John Taverner
-An English composer and organist, regarded as the most important English composer of his era.
-Most of his music is vocal, and includes masses, Magnificats and motets. His best-known motet is "Dum Transisset Sabbatum".
-Taverner was the first Organist and Master of the Choristers at Christ Church, Oxford.
Who is William Byrd?
An English Catholic composer during the 16th century. He might have been Tallis’s student. He wrote dances, variations, in nominees, especially for virginals or consorts of strings or winds. Published and printed. 3 masses have survived (maybe they were able to survive because title pages were removed). We don’t know the titles of the masses so we title them: Byrd’s Mass for 3 voices. Byrd’s Mass for 4 voices. Byrd’s Mass for 5 voices.
Parallel Organum
Music organized in more than one part; voices moved in parallel fourths or fifths
Musica Enchiriadis
Earliest manuscript (late 9th century) with more than one voice part written for Gregorian chant; basic polyphony; treatise explaining how to sing in parallel organum
Free Organum
Chant in top voice; bottom voice starts unison with top voice but rises in smaller intervals; similar motion for whole chant ending back on a unison
Ad organum faciendum
"On the Making of Organum;" treatise establishing cantus firmus (main voice on lower voice) as melody to which new parts could be added to create new music; first instance of contrary motion in music
St. Martial/melismatic
Poliphany originating in the 12th/early 13th centuries at St. Marsielles monastery in Limoges; 3 harmony parts to one chant voice; lower voice (chant) held notes longer than harmony lines, so they sang a lot more notes than the other voices
General term for early polyphony; began as cantus firmus sung by a tenor with harmony lines being added in graduating degrees of complexity as time went on; started in the 9th century with the treatise Musica Enchiriadis
Cantus firmus/tenor
The voice in a Melismatic chant that sings the actual chant line (lower than all the harmony voices); notes in this voice are held out much longer than in the upper voices
Notre Dame organum
1200s: Anonymous IV reported about music at the Paris Cathedral of Notre Dame: Leonin was a main composer, lots of mass parts were written for musically inclined clergy to perform, Magnus Liber Organi written
13th century: Accredited by Anonymous IV as being one of the forefront writers of Notre Dame Organum, the Magnus Liber and 2-part church music to last the entire year; only ever wrote for duplum and tenor, not more voices
The next notable composer after Leonin, possibly his student; late 12th/early 13th century; wrote new sections of organum in discant style; wrote with more rhythmic variety than predecessors and for more than two voices; used voice exchange; notable song: Viderunt Omnes
Organum Quadruplum
Organum with three harmony parts to one tenor
Voice Exchange
Used in Perotin's organum; origin of imitation; like a three-part canon, except parts do not overlap, they all switch at the same time:
1. xyz
2. zxy
3. yzx
Anonymous IV
Theorist at the end of the 13th century who is said to have written (in Latin, though he was probably British) about Leonin's organum and his work on it at the Cathedral of Notre Dame of Paris
W1, W2, and F
Sources with motet manuscripts
Magnus Liber Organi
1160-1180; compilation of works by composers such as Léonin and Pérotin (according to Anonymous IV) that helped establish the change from plainchant to more complex polyphony; contains substitute discants that can fit with Leonin's organum; added text to upper voices for the first time
Pure Organum/ Discant Clausula
Like Leonin organum but with text added to the upper voices using either French or Latin text
Ligatures/rhythmic modes
In mensural notation, ligatures represented multiple notes that were to be sung on the same syllable; rhythms were either in duple or triple modes
In two part organum, the harmony line
New word for the duplum in discant clausula; Three-part motet would be voiced from top down:
1. Triplum
2. Motetus
3. Tenor
lira da braccio
European bowed string instrument of the Renaissance. It was used by Italian poet-musicians in court in the 15th and 16th centuries to accompany their improvised recitations of lyric and narrative poetry. It is most closely related to the medieval fiddle, or vielle, and like the vielle had a leaf-shaped pegbox with frontal pegs
La me la sol
need notes for this sorry
Renaissance bass woodwind instrument, with a double reed and a folded conical bore. The predecessor of the modern bassoon, it flourished between 1550 and 1700, but was probably invented earlier. Towards the end of this period it co-existed with, and was then superseded by the baroque bassoon, although it continued to be used in Spain until early in the twentieth century. It was played in both secular and sacred contexts, throughout northern and western Europe, as well as in the New World
a double reed wind instrument related to the bassoon. The inventor of the rackett is unknown. However the first historical mention can be found in German sources such as the Wurttemberg inventories of 1576 (listed as a Raggett) and the Graz inventory of 1590 (listed as a Rogetten)
musical instrument of the woodwind family, most commonly used during the Renaissance period. In modern times, there has been a revival of interest in Early Music, and crumhorns are being played again. They have a limited range, usually a major ninth. Capped reed instrument- double reed is mounted inside a windcap at one end of a long pipe. Blowing into the windcap produces a musical note.
musical instrument of the woodwind family, originally popular in Europe in the mid-16th Century. In common with the crumhorn and cornamuse, it is a wooden double-reed instrument with the reed enclosed in a windcap. The player blows into a slot in the top of the windcap to produce the sound.
Divisions/ diminutions/ passaggi
a way to decorate a simple cadence or interval with extra shorter notes. These start as simple passing notes, progress to step-wise additions and in the most complicated cases are rapid passages of equal valued notes - virtuosic flourishes.
Collection of secular works by this dude Michael Praetorius. Named after the Greek Muse.
a trombone from the Renaissance and Baroque Eras. More delicately constructed than their modern counterparts, historic trombones feature a softer, more flexible sound and they attracted a sizeable repertoire of original chamber and vocal music. From the 15th to the 19th centuries, the instrument designs changed very little overall, apart from a slight widening of the bell in classical era. Since the 19th century, trombone bore sizes and bells have increased significantly.
The regal was a small portable organ, furnished with beating reeds and having two bellows. The instrument enjoyed its greatest popularity during the Renaissance. The name was also sometimes given to the reed stops of a pipe organ, and more especially the vox humana stop.
The clavichord is a European stringed keyboard instrument known from the late Medieval, through the Renaissance, Baroque and Classical eras. Historically, it was widely used as a practice instrument and as an aid to composition. The clavichord produces sound by striking brass or iron strings with small metal blades called tangents. The clavichord was invented in the early fourteenth century, was very popular from the 16th century to the 18th century.
(set of) virginals
keyboard instrument of the harpsichord family. It was popular in northern Europe and Italy during the late Mediaeval and Renaissance periods. he virginals is a smaller and simpler rectangular form of the harpsichord with only one string per note running more or less parallel to the keyboard on the long side of the case. Many, if not most, of the instruments were constructed without legs, and would be placed on a table for playing. Later models were built with their own stands.
Cinquecento madrigal
In the late 16th century, as the Renaissance era closes, an extremely manneristic style develops. There was a trend towards complexity and even extreme chromaticism
Philippe verdelot
1480 to 1485 – c. 1530 to 1532?) was a French composer of the Renaissance, who spent most of his life in Italy. He is commonly considered to be the father of the Italian madrigal, and certainly was one of its earliest and most prolific composers. Verdelot's style balances homophonic with imitative textures. Most of his madrigals are for five or six voices.
Costanzo festa
1485–1490 – April 10, 1545) was an Italian composer of the Renaissance. While he is best known for his madrigals, he also wrote sacred vocal music. He was the first native Italian polyphonist of international renown. Wrote madrigals are for three voices, in contrast to the other early madrigalists. Liked quick, rhythmically active passages in his madrigals. he wrote extended homophonic sections.
Adrian willaert
1490 – 7 December 1562) was a Flemish composer of the Renaissance and founder of the Venetian School. Willaert was one of the most versatile composers of the Renaissance, writing music in almost every extant style and form.
Jacob arcadelt
1507 – October 14, 1568) was a Franco-Flemish composer of the Renaissance, active in both Italy and France, and principally known as a composer of secular vocal music. Although he also wrote sacred vocal music, he was one of the most famous of the early composers of madrigals; his first book of madrigals, published within a decade of the appearance of the earliest examples of the form, was the most widely printed collection of madrigals of the entire era
word painting
(also known as tone painting or text painting) is the musical technique of writing music which reflects the literal meaning of a song. For example, ascending scales would accompany lyrics about going up; slow, dark music would accompany lyrics about death. Tone painting of words goes at least as far back as Gregorian chant.
Requiem Mass
In the Roman Catholic rite, a votive Mass on behalf of the dad. Ockeghem wrote the earliest existing requieum mass
Parody Mass
A musical setting of the five movements of the ordinary of the Roman Catholic Mass that is unified by the presence of the entire texture of a pre-existing polyphonic work, represented by borrowed motifs and points of imitation. imitation mass is a mass where the cantus firmus has up to 4 or 5 voices of preexisting counterpoint.
Missa prolationum
Ockeghem's motto mass that is a technical tour de forde. Notated in two voices but sung in four and uses a mensural canon.
Mensuration canon
A canon in which voices sing the same material at different speeds, moving according to different mensuration signs. Parts start together and gradually separate according to breve and semi breve
Antoine Busonis
1430-1492 wrote some sacred music. was the composer for the Duke of Burgundy. Consistently used imitation.
Josquin des Prez
1450-1521 composer who held a series of prestigious positions at court and churches in France and Italy. Hailed as one of the best composers of our time, equal to Bach, Mozart and Beethoven. Able to compose master works in every genere and was renowned for reflecting words through text expression, wrote ave maria virgo serena, and used continuous imitaiton
16th century genre of italian polyphonic song in mock-popular style, typically syllabic, homophonic and diatonic, with the melody in the upper voice and marked rhythmic patterns. translated means "little fruit" or fruits of creativity. Josquin wrote Girllo about a cricket.
Deploration d' Ockeghem
"Nimphes des bois" Nymphs of the woodlands and goddess of the fields mourn ockeghem
Soggetto cavato dale vocali
subject carved from the vowels. Used by Josquin des Prez. Cantus firmus re ut re ut re fa mi re - melody made up of vowels.
Miss Hercules dux Ferrarie
written to honor Ercole (Hercules) I duke of Ferrara most likely while serving the dual court 1503-1504. Has a cantus firmus and melody made up of vowels. Uses soggetto cavato dale vocali. where each vowel represents a syllable of the hexachord
Ottaviano Petrucci
1466-1539 Was the first printer of polyphonic music. In 150 in venice, he brought out the first collection of polyphonic music printed entirely from moveable type called Harmonice musices odhecaton A. He used the triple impression method to print staves first words and then notes on the staves. Patented the process and paper was hand made so he gained a monopoly on music printing
Harmonice musices odhecaton A:
(See Ottaviano Petrucci) title means 100 plyphonic songs but was actually only 96. Two versions Canti B in 1502 and Canti C in 1504 made petrucci have the most up to date and popular secular music of the day. published 59 volumes of vocal and instrumental music.
Hayne van Ghizeghem
composer from Flanders who wrote a dozen masses. Flemish composer of the early renaissance Burgundian School. A composer of chansons, most of which are rondeaux.
De tours biens plaines
"My mistress is full of all good things" written by Hayne...a 3 part french chanson published by Petrucci in 1501. Some sources claim this to be the most famous chanson of the age.
Lute Tablature
Notational system that tells players which strings to pluck and where to place the gingers on the strings rather than indicating what pitches will result. Appeared in books with the voice and lute parts vertically aligned allowing singers to accompany themselves
Paraphrase cantus firmus
Technique in which a chant or other melody is reworked, often by altering rhythms and adding notes, placed in a polyphonic setting. Laid foundation for the style adopted by future composers. Ex. Missa pange lingua by Josquin
Continuing Imitation
In polyphonic music, repeating a melody or motive announced in one part in one or more other parts often at a different pitch level and sometimes with minor melodic or rhythmic alterations. Josquin writes points of interlocking imitation where each voice resembles another. Around 1520 the imitation mass began to displace the cantus firmus mass as the most common type.
A capella
in manner of the chapel (unaccompanied) first developed by Josquin. 19th century came to be viewed as unaccompanied because of the mistaken belief that it referred to the lack of instrumental accompaniment in the papel chapel where palestrina worked. By the mid 19th century, the Catholic church as actively promoting the composition of unaccompanied choral music in a Palestrina-inspired style
Nicholas Yonge
16th century English singer and publisher. Most famous for publishing Musica Transalpina (1588), a collection of Italian madrigals translated into English. It's popularity caused many English composers to write their own madrigals.
Musica Transalpina
A collection of Italian madrigals translated into English, published in 1588 by Nicholas Yonge. The popularity of this collection caused many English composers to begin writing their own madrigals.
Giovanni Gastoldi
Italian composer (c. 1550-1622?) best known for his balletti for five voices. These balleti were strophic vocal dances characterized by use of nonsense syllables, simple chordal texture, and rhythmic accents.
A strophic vocal dance made popular by Giovanni Gastoldi in the late 16th century. Balletti were based off instrumental patterns, often used nonsense syllables, and used fast rhythmic accents to create the dance feel.
Thomas Morley
16th c. English composer known primarily for his contribution to the English madrigal, though he also wrote instrumental and sacred music. He also wrote balletts, an English adaptation of the Italian balletti.
English version of the Italian balletto. Strophic, dancelike rhythms, varied textures, uses "fa-la-la" a lot. Thomas Morley was a prominent composer of balletts.
John Bennet
Composer of the English madrigal school. Late 16th to early 17th c. One of his madrigals, Weep, O Mine Eyes, pays homage to John Dowland.
Thomas Weelkes
English madrigal composer and organist. Late 16th to early 17th c. His madrigals were very chromatic and used unconventional rhythm. Used word painting and sometimes wrote his own texts.
Triumphes of Oriana
Collection of English madrigals published by Thomas Morley in 1601. May have been in honor of Queen Elizabeth I.
John Dowland
English composer, singer, and lutenist. 1563-1626? Mainly composed for lute but is best known for his set of seven pavanes (instrumental dances) for consort
Morley consort/ Broken consort
group made up of instruments from different families of instruments. (all in the same family was a complete consort.)
Lute song
- Prominent in early 1600s
- lute accompanies vocal melody
- leading composers: John Dowland and Thomas Campion
- music reflects mood
- less word painting than madrigal
Luzzasco Luzzaschi
- 1545-1607
- Italian composer and organist
- Student of Cipriano de Rore
- Principle organist to d'Este court
- Known for publishing Madrigali collection (1601)
Madrigal Comedy
- Italian entertainment music in late 16th c.
- related madrigals sung consecutively, telling a story
- predecessor of opera
Orazio Vecchi
- Italian composer in late Renaissance (16th c.)
- Known for his madrigal comedies, particularly L'Amfiparnaso
- Madrigal comedy by Orazio Vecchi
- 1597