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101 Cards in this Set

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what will be required for a listener to gain an appreciation for and understanding of an artistic compostion?
ther more you listen to classical music, the more you'll understand. you'll actually get a deep understanding and apprectiation.
how is listening to such an artistic compostion similar to studying salvador dali's the hallunicogenic toreador?
the more you look at the more painting, themore you can see.
what is the benefit of attending alive musical performance?
feel a part of the experience. more attentive. more enjoyable.
what are the bood and bad features of just litening to recored music?
Pro-better recordings.last longer.if not perfect-can be made perfect.
con- mistakes are made in live performance. has been doctored and is perfect so puts pressure onlive performers.
differences between popular music and art music from a perforcer's point of view
popular music requires less time to prepare. much less difficult. art music requires more practice. popular music gets old- you want to listen to somehting else. artistisc music can last for centuries.
where is the ideal place to sit in a concert hall
balcony-front. middle(box seats) in front of overhang-hear everything well.
what do you not do at a concert featureing classical music that may be permissible at a popular music concert
do not sing, cheer, walk around, get up, dress as casually, take flash pictures, record
what do you do if you arrive late to a classical performance
wait outside until music stops or until usher lets you in. stay in back.
when do you applaud in a classical music instrumental concert?
end of composition
when do you applaud during operas
after major vocal solo
when do you applaud during jazz concert
after solo.@ end
what differences occur between popular music and art music regarding concert attire for performers.
men in tails. all uniform. seen as a body. not as individual. focus on music.
what qulities are needed to be an artistic critic?
journalistic ability. vast knowledge. not a performer-too subjective.
state some ways in which 20th centruy technology has affected popular and artistic music
recorde just before WWII. microphones. ampliphiers.
the abbreviation, Op. refers to waht term. and what does it mean?
Op. means opus. work #, order in which composer wrote.
symphony
instrumental composition-4 movements
concerto
one soloist performing with orchestra
what are so many terms used in music from the italian language
long tradition of great composers- simply adopted.
legato
play as smooth as possible
staccato
spaces among notes
pizzicato
string term- pluck string
glissando
slide to notes.
tremolo
string and keyboard play note as quick as possible repeatedly.
trill
go between two notes quickly
stop
string, organistis play open string then repeat with finger on it.
double stop
2 strings at the same tiem.
vibrato
all but horns and clarinets
mute
softens and changes pitch slightly. changes color of sound.
4 basic families of orchestral instruments
string, woodwind, brass, percussion
string
sound drqn by bow over string. vibrating string. sustained and nice sound. violin, viola, chelo (violonchello) bass(double bass, string bass, contra band, bass viol.) all with no frets
non orchestral string intruments
guitar, banjo, madolin, ukelele
violin
smallest string intrusment.left of conductor. rounded shoulders
viola
right of conductor. rounded shoulders
chelo-
must sit down. end pin rests on ground. rounded shoulders.
bass
sloping shoulders
woodwinds
vibrating reed.
flute
usually 2 in orchestra. blow over hole.
piccolo
not always in orchestra
oboe
2 in orchestra. tune the orchestra. double reed. nasal sound.
english horn
not always in orchestra. lower sound. double reed. bulbous bottom.
clarinet
2 in orchestra. round ful bodied sound
bass clarinet
1 in orchestra.
bassoon
2 in orchestra. double reed. equivelant to range of chelo.
contra basson.
must sit. double reed.
sax
not in orchestra. more brass sound. single reed.
Brass intruments in orchestra- list 4
trumpet, french horn (horn), trombone, tuba
Brass intruments not in orchestra
bugle (no valves), cornet (softer sound), souzaphone, baritone horn.
Percussion
something struck or hit. 2 types. pitched and unpitched.
pitched
piano, timpani(kettle drums)(2 or more), chimes, zylophone, marimba (not as harsh as xylophone, celeste(mini piano)
unpitched
snaredrum(rattles, underside of drum)(typical in parade band), bass drum, cymbols, gong, maracas, tamborine, triangle.
keyboard instruments list 3
piano, harpsichord, organ
difference between chorus and choir
chorus is larger in size than choir;
a cappella
w/o instruments
chamber ensemble
small # of instrumentalists. ex) trio. each person plays a different part
difference bewtween syphony orchestra and band
strings in symphony orchestra
function of conductor
keeps group together. tries to mold sound so will have unique characteristic of sound. their own personality.
what does conductor stand on
podium
what does conductor hold in his hand
baton
musical score
all parts together..in front of conductor.
melody
succession of single tones or pitches perceived by the mind as a unity
sound
vibrations perceived by the human ear; a musical sound is described by its pitch and its duration.
frequency
rate of vibrations of a string or column of air, which determines pitch.
pitch
highness of lowness of a tone, depending on the frequency (rate of vibration)
interval
distance and relationship between two pitches
melodic range
the distance between the melody's lowest and highest tone
melodic shape
the direction a melody takes as it turns upward or downward or remains static
conjunct melody
move principally by small intervals in a joined, connected manner
disjunct melody
move in disjointed or disconnected intervals
phrase
a unit of meaning within a large structure
cadence
phrase end or resting place.
rhythm
what moves music forward in time
beat
the basic unit we use to measure time
accent
the emphasis on a beat resulting in its being louder or longer than another in a measure
meter
marked off in measures, organizes the beats in music
downbeat
first accented beat of each pattern
measure
rythmic group or metrical unit that contains a fixed number of beats, divided on the musical staff by bar lines.
syncopation
deliberate upsetting of the meter or pulse through a temporary shifting of the accent to a weak beat or an offbeat.
harmony
describes the simultaneous happenings in music. the movement and relationship of intervals and chords.
diatonic scale
melodies or harmonies that are built from the tones of a a major or minor scale
chromatic scale
the full famut of notes available in the octave.
chord
three or more tones are sounded together
triad
the most common chord in Western music is a certain combination of three tones.
key (tonality)
the principle of organization around a central tone, the tonic,
dissonacne
a combination of tones that sounds discordant, unstable, in need of resolution.
consonance
a concordant, agreeable combination of musical tones that provides a sense of relaxation or fulfillment.
monophonic texture
a single-voiced. interest is focused on the single line rather than on any accompaniament.
homophonic texture
a single voice takes over the melodic interest, while the accompanying parts take a subordiante role.
polyphonic texture
manyvoices. two or more different melodic lines are combined, thus distributing melodic interest among all the parts.
imitation
one method composeres use to give unity and shape to the texture, in which a melodic idea is presented in one voice and then restaed in another. while the imitating voice restates the melody, teh first voice continues with new material.
canon
type of ployphonic composition in which one musical line strictly imitates another at a fixed distance throughout.
round
perpetual canon at the unison in which each voice enteres in succession with the same melody.
motive
short melodic or rhythmic idea, the smallest fragment of a theme that forms a melodic-harmonic-rhythmic unit
theme
when a melodic idea is used as a building block in the construction of a musical work.
thematic development
the most tightly knit kind of expansion in music. elaborating or varying a musical idea, revealing its capacity for growth.
call and response
a singing leader who is imitated by a chorus of followers. responsorical music.
ostinato
a short musical pattern- melodic, rhythmic, or harmonic- that is repeated continually throughout a work or a major section of a composition.
timbre
tone color. best accounts for the striking differences in the sound of instruments.
aerophone
produce sounds by using air as the primary vibrating means.
chordophone
produce sound from a vibrating string stretched between two points.
idiophone
produce sound from the substance from the instrument itself.
membranophone
drum-type instruments that are sounded from tightly stretched membranes.