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27 Cards in this Set

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scientific revolution
the process that establish the new view of the universe. was not a rapid revolution nor did it involve many people. drew artisans and craftspeople to help construct new instruments. established new social structures. developed from "natural knowledge"
Nicolaus Copernicus
a polish priest and astronomer. not very original work. publish On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres undertaken to correct papacy's calendar. challenged Ptolemaic system and was heliocentric. still had many flaws but was better than older system. biggest impact was providing a way to confront the difficulties in Ptolemaic astronomy. took many years to become popular
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres
a book published by Copernicus in the year of his death which was a "revolutionary-making" text. challenged system very conservatively
Ptolemaic System
the old system developed by Ptolemy that was geocentric. had many flaws that were fixed by epicycles
epicycles
used to explain flaws in astronomy before concept of elliptical orbits
geocentrism
the most popular earlier idea that the world revolved around the earth
heliocentrism
a sun centered model for astronomy that would become the accepted theory
Tycho Brahe
danish astronomer who was an avid geocentrist. constructed scientific instruments with which he made more extensive naked-eye observations than anyone ever. gave extensive empirical data from which his successors could work
Johannes Kepler
assistant of Brahe who used his data to develop a new theory with elliptical orbits. brought about many mysteries that would not be explained till Newton. an avid neoplatonist with much respect for the sun
Galileo Galilei
an italian mathematician and natural philosopher who was first to use telescope on the heavens. observed many unexplained things. knew that few people who controlled patronage could grasp the concept so used his rhetorical skills to argue the Copernican theory. his career illustrates that the forging of the new science involved more than just presenting arguments and evidence. went to become a philospher and mathematician in florence sponsored by Medici. named stars after them to gain patronage. became a high profile advocate of Copernicanism. argued that nature was controlled by mathematical law. began the popularity of replacing qualities with quanities
Isaac Newton
englishman who addressed the issue with planetary m otion and establish a basis for physics for next 2 centuries. published the principia mathematic which didnt have many new ideas. like Copernicus. argued that everything was affected by gravity but never xplained its nature. a firm believer in impirical data and observations. a great opponent of french philosopher Rene Descartes.
René Descartes
an important figure in the scientific revolution discontented with scholasticism heritage. pushed for deductive reasoning by the thought process. thought reason should only be applied to mechanical realm of matter or to the exploration of itself. concluded human reason could comprehend world
mechanism
the idea that the world works logically like machine. gave path toward physical improvement though human beings ability to command and manipulate
empiricism
fathered by Francis Bacon
Novum Organum
Bacons book that attacked scholastic belief that most truth had already been known. promoted independence, self confidence and innovation
deductive reasoing
reasoning from general principle to arrive at specific facts. advocated by Descartes
Discourse on Method
written by Descartes to reject scholasticism and advocated thought on mathematical model. was in french to have wide circulation and application. said reason was of Godgiven so could not be false
inductive reason
drawing generalizations from and test hypotheses against empirical observations. replaced Descartes
Thomas Hobbes
supported new movement. friends with many new scientists. like classics. presented things with ill view of human nature. said only can become happy if agree to a rule like the golden one. opposed by supporters of divine right of kings and christians. his religious critique meant his though had little immediate practical impact.
Leviathan
written by Hobbes after English Civil War. aimed to provide justification for a strong central political authority.
john locke
proved to be the most influential philosophical and political thinker of the 17th. although less original became a major source of criticism of absolutism and provided foundation for later liberal philosophy. had a family with puritan sympathies and father was in the english civil war. forced to flee holland because he lived with Ashley Cooper who organized an unsussessful rebellion. wrote two treatises on government that rejected arguments for absolute government based on patriarchal model which stopped appeal to that model. argued government must be both responsible and responsive to the governed. portrayed natural human state of freedom and equality with natural goodwill. says problems emerge only when rulers fail to preserve people natural freedom. says ruler-governed relationship is of trust and people should rebel if trust broken. promoted extensive religious toleration except Roman Catholics. also studied human thought with idea that mind is a blank slate influenced by environment. rejected original sin but believed preserved the knowledge. reason and revelation went together. advocated educational reform like Hobbes
The Royal Society of London
the most famous of the institutions in which members gathered, exchanged, and debated new science
Margaret Cavendish
one of few women who made significant contributions to the scientific literature of today. used her husbands influence with his social circle. wrote Observations Upon Experimental Philosophy and Grounds of Natural Philosophy and Description of a New World, Called the Blazing World. tried to introduce women into the new science. criticized royal society for being more interested in novel scientific instruments than in solving practical problems
Blaise Pascal
made one of the most influential efforts to reconcile faith and the new science. refuted both dogmatism and skepticism. wrote Pensees or Thoughts. allied himself with Jansenists. saw two essential truths a loving god exits and humans unworthy of God. thought might as well believe in God cuz nothing to lose. convinced that religion improved life psychologically and disciplined it morally.
physico-theology
the religious though associated with such deducing of religious conclusions from nature. nature brought better understanding of God. was part of the English approach
midwives
unpopular among people who suffered deaths they were associated with. very common to be accused of withcraft. one of few women dominated jobs that was still controlled by men
baroque
denotes he style associated with seventeenth century art. covers a variety and differs from country. depicted subjects in a thoroughly naturalistic rather than an idealized manner. also used contrasts of light and darkness. seen as theatrical and emotional. artists served both religious and secular ends. first emerged in Rome and became associated with Roman Catholicism and Absolute authority