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56 Cards in this Set

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-expired "assimilation" theory
-people shed their and culture and accept the American culture
Melting Pot Theory
-theory of acculturation
-American is pluralistic; more of a tossed salad
Cultural pluralism
language used for cognitive and scholastic purposes
-"CALPS"
-not usually aquired till 5 to 7 years US residency
-typically context reduced
Academic language
CALPS
Cognitive Academic Language Proficiency

Cummins
refers to language used for interpersonal everyday oral communication
-BICS
-aquired after 2 yrs. residency in US
-typically context embedded
Oral language
BICS
Basic Interpersonal Communication Skills

Cummins
refers to the language the person wishes to use in given contexts
Language preference
continuum of language proficiency exists for a second language learners
Language proficiency
form of language that relies heavily on knowledge of language itself, not many clues are present for the person to interpret the meaning of a message
-usually in written form
Context reduced
form of language where participants can actively negotiate meaning
-clues add meaning to the message
Context embedded
type of bilingual education where the purpose is to maintain native language proficiency
-native language used for instruction in content areas
Maintenance Bilingual Education
When a second language is added on the first with no detrimental effects to either langauge
Additive bilingual education
type of biligual education where the purpose is to quickly move the child into regular education
-native lang. used until sufficient proficiency is attained (1-2 years)
Transitional biligual education
When the development of proficiency of L2 has detrimental effects on L1
Subtractive biligual education
ESL/ESOL
English as a Second Language; English speakers of other languages
Not true bilingual programs
-focus on English instruction
-high intensity English lessons
-students are in for 1-2 yrs.
ESL/ESOL
person who is able to use both languages with a high level of proficiency
-not the norm
proficient bilingual
person who is in one language and a low proficiency in another language
partial bilingual
person who exhibits low levels of proficiency in both languages
-not necessarily disordered
limited bilingual
when one language is learned prior to another
sequential bilingualism
two languages are learned together
simultaneous bilingualism
CUP
common underlying proficiencies
-language transference
SUP
seperate underlying proficiencies
-language independance
alternation of the two languages in therapy
compound/concurrent bilingualism
keep instruction of the two langauges separate in therapy
coordinate bilingualism
the use of more than one language in communicating
-can be at lexical, morphological or phonological levels
Code-switching
words that have made their way into the language after repeated use
loan/borrowed words
age measure that should not be considered
CA- chron. age
measurement of age in the L2 which may not be the true measurement
MA- mental age
Age measurement for language that looks at what has already been learned in a lang. based on actions in the environment (cognition and lang are inseperable)
LA- language age
common method of comparing scores where the mean and SD are the same (most common is the Z score)
SS- standard score
overall score before conversions
raw score
a person's score is compared to the percentage of scores which fall beneath it (interval scale score)
-expresses in a distribution
percentile
standard score bands that divide the distribution into nine parts
stanine
an ongoing process of determining the client's level of performance in any give area (incorporates formal and informal)
assessment
usually conotates a one time affair of measuring the client's level of performance (incorporates formal and informal(
evaluation
type od test that permits one to compare individuals performance on the test to the performance of others
norm-referenced test
specifics which population the test was standardized
-where sample was taken, age of subjects...
normed
type of test that describes a student's performance in relation to specified criterion
-mastery vs. non-mastery
criterion-referenced test
assessment that involves use of samplpes of behavior, artifacts, use of rating scales, obsrvation of client's performance, interviews w/ teachers... specifically when it involves making a judgement
judgement-based assessment
compare one's performance in relation to specified developmental norms

****varies from culture to culture
Developmental scales
scales that involve observation of listed behaviors
(direct and indirect)
observational scales
"I" culture
-individual identity
-" needs
-independance from group
-focus on personalities
-"autonomous" self
-direct comm. styles
-strangers establish relations more quickly
Individualistic cultures
an understanding of one's 1st culture by five years of age
culture
"we" culture
-group identity
-" needs
-belonging to group
-focus on group- give "face" to group
-common sense of fate
-norms used to explain behaviors
-"tight" culture
collectivisitic culture
refers to communcation that relies little on the surrounding context for interpretation
low context language
culture that attribute other's behaviors to the context and situation
high context
culture that places emphasis on the belief that people should be similar or parallel on most attributes, especially status
horizontal cultures
culture that believe that rank has it's merits, thus, rank has it's privaleges
vertical cultures
same/independant; sameness and uniquness are emphasized
horizontal individualism
different/independant; many upper and middle class americans follow this orientation
vertical individualism
same/interdependant; oneness with the group and cooperativeness; community needs first
horizontal collectivism
different/interdependant; dutifulness
vertical collectivism
function better in cooperative, informal and loosely structured environments; work closely together
field dependant
children who excel in taking elements out of context, show a great sense of identity, greater independance, see selves apart from others
field independance
six stumbling blocks to intercultural sterotypes
1. assuming similarities
2. language
3. nonverbal misinterpretations
4. preconceptions/sterotypes
5. tendancies to evaluate
6. high anxiety