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79 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is music?
The organization of sound and time within a performance space
What is an interval?
The distance between two pitches/tones, denoted by letters.
Do you start on the letter you are counting up from, or on the following letter?
The letter you are starting from.
A to F is 6:
A, B, C, D, E, F
What is an octave?
An interval of 8 notes: A to A'
Define Conjunct
Smooth and connected notes with small intervals
Define Disjunct
Disjointed/disconnected notes with big leaps
(usually sounds more excited)
Define Timbre
Quality and color of a sound that distinguishes it from other voices
What is rhythm?
Sucession of long and short durations + stress/accent
What is meter?
Grouping of pulses into a regular pattern
Multimetric/additive rhythm?
The grouping changes: 2,2,4
Polyrhythm
Several rhythms happening at once
Syncopation
Events inbetween pulses (makes the music sound jazzy)
Tempo
Speed at which the music moves through time
Adagio
Very slow
Andante
Walking pace
Allegro
Fast
Presto
Very fast
Change from one tempo to another:
Slowing down is?
Speeding up is?
Retardando or Diminuedo
Accelerando
Whole note
Half note
Quarter note
Eighth note
Circle, empty
Circle w/ bar, empty
Filled circle with bar
Filled circle with flag
Art music
Music created for own sake
Arab cultural music
Difficult to perform and understand
Instruments
Voice (preeminent)
Sitar
Lute
Violin
Kni - reed flute
Percussion: Tambourin, Tabla (goblet drum), Daff (frame drum)
Arab meter
Starts on a low note, can be additive
Register
General region where notes in a melody lie
Range
Distance from highest to lowest tones
Dynamics
Degree of loudness or softness
ff - fortissimo
f - forte
mf - mezzo forte
mp - mezzo piano
p - piano
pp - pianissimo
ff - loudest
mf - sort of loud
pp - softest
crescendo
decrescendo
getting louder
getting softer
subito piano
Suddenly soft
melody
A coherent (single line) of pitches; notes sounding one after the other
Phrase
Denotes a unit of meaning withing a larger structure
A musical sentence
Antecendent
Consequent
The question
The answer
Climax
Emotional focal point
Cadence
Progression that gives sense of conclusion
Sequence
Repition of a melodic pattern on a progressively higher or lower level
Countermelody
Accompanying melody sounded against principle melody
Articulation
The manner of delivery, the way it is played
Staccato
detached, separated
Legato
Long, smooth, connected
Harmony
Simultaneous notes in music
describes movement and relationship of chords and intervals
Chord
3+ notes played simultaneously
Triad
3 pitches built on alternate tones of the scale
1-3-5
Consonance
Agreeable combination of musical tones, relaxing
Dissonance
Combination of tones that sound unstable and in need of resolution
Block chord
notes struck simultaneously
Arpeggio
sounding individual notes of a chord one at a time
tonic
central tone toward which other tones gravitate
tonality
presence of a tonal center
atonality
absense of tonal center
scale
collection of pitches arranced in ascending or descending order
all the availible pitches
Chromatic scale
full gamut of notes availible in an octave
What is the smallest step in Western scales?
1/2 a step
Major scale
whole steps everywhere except between 3-4 and 7-8
Minor scale
whole scale everywhere except between 2-3 and 5-6
Diatonic members
Refers to the initial defining members, usually 7 pitches (starting line up of a baseball team)
Chromatic members
All availible members (like baseball team)
~12 pitches
Key
A tonic plus a special scale
Tells:
tonic and if availible notes will be major or minor
Modulation
Shift from one key to another
Texture
How many layers of sound and how they relate
Monophony
Single melodic line without accompanyment
Heterophony
Single melodic line simultaneously ornamented and embellished by performers
Homophony
One main melody accompanied by chords/subordinate accompanyment
polyphony
simul. performance of two melodic lines of equal importance
Polyphony nonimitative
not taking motive and copying
Polyphony imitative
Same motiff but staggered
Canon - various voices enter at same tonal level
Fugue - voices enter varying between tonal and dominant level
Ostinato
Short musical fragment repeated again and again to serve as musical foundation
Inversion
melody played upside down
Retrograde
melody played backward
Retrograde Inversion
played backward and upside down
Augmentation
Diminution
same melody but longer notes
same melody but shorter notes
Form
relationship of ideas, like a map
binary
rounded binary
tripartite
ternary
rondo
strophic
song
AB
AB (B makes reference to A)
AaBbCc
ABA'
ABA'CA''DAEA
Different lyrics over same melody
AABA
Percussion
sound produced by collision
Tuned Percussion
Bells, chimes, marimba, xylophone
*timpani - kettle drum musicians sing into to tune
*piano - hammer colliding with string
Untuned Percussion
Snare drum, bass drum, cymbal, triangle, gong
Strings
Violin
Viola
Cello
Bass
Pitch of a string is determined by:
1. diameter of string
2. string tension
3. density of string material
4. vibrating string length
Woodwinds
air moving through a tube with holes
Flute, oboe, bassoon, clarinet
Brass
Vibrating air moving through coiled tubes
Horn, trumpet, trombone, tuba