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37 Cards in this Set

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What is the most essential, single link in the training chain?
The Instructor
State and discuss the three qualities of an efficient and effective instructor.
1. Knowledge-
-The instructor must have many types of knowledge to be both efficient and effective.
-First, the instructor must be thoroughly familiar with the subject to be will be taught.
-The instructor will need to understand he/she will be conducting training to meet the needs of the Navy, not individual members.
-The instructor will need to understand that training accomplishes at least three things:

a. Develop knowledge, skills and attitudes
b. Produce changes in behavior
c. Attain specific objectives

-To help students learn, the instructor needs to know something about their previous education and experience.
-The instructor needs to know basic instructional strategies and techniques.

2. Ability-
-The instructor should have two basic types of ability: leadership and instructional.
-Efficient and effective instructors have leadership skills such as planning and organizing, optimizing the use of resources, delegating authority, monitoring progress and results, disciplining and rewarding.
-Instructional ability, along with leadership ability, is essential to your efficiency and effectiveness as an instructor. You must not only know the principles, methods, and techniques or instruction, you must be able to apply them effectively.

3. Personality-
-Personality is defined as the pattern of collective character, behavioral, temperamental, emotional, and mental traits of an individual.
Discuss the following instructor responsibilities:
1. Responsibility to students

The instructor’s responsibility to their students is to teach effectively, set a good example for them to follow, and help them resolve conflicts that hinder their training.

2. Responsibility to training safety

The instructor’s responsibility to their students is to maintain safety and supervisory procedures that ensure safe training while providing the realism needed to fulfill fleet operational requirements, within practical limits.

3. Responsibility for security

In teaching classified information, the instructor must be aware of several requirements:
-Never discuss any classified material not in the approved curriculum.
-Never present or discuss information that carries a higher security classification than that of the approved curriculum.
-Do not incorporate into your course materials any information that carries a higher security classification than that of the approved curriculum.
-Make sure you can account for classified training materials or references used in the training environment at all times.
-Immediately report any situation you suspect may constitute a security violation.

4. Responsibility for curriculum

Instructors need to understand the following terms and definitions associated with the maintenance of curriculum:

Curriculum - All training conducted within a school, outlined into specific topics, along with detailed training objectives.

Surveillance - A process that provides ongoing evaluation of training or training materials to ensure continued effectiveness and currency of content to meet the training requirements.

Interim Change - A minor change to correct editorial and typographical errors, teachability, safety, or urgent type commander-issued subjects.

Change - A modification to training materials that DOES NOT affect course objectives, increase course length, or require additional resources.
Technical Change - Any change to tactical (i.e, shipboard) or training-unique equipment or documentation originating in the Training Support Agency’s (normally a SYSCOM) parent material agency that affects curriculum. A technical change may or may not affect individual lesson objectives, but DOES NOT affect course objectives, course length, or resources.

Revision - A change to any course learning/terminal objective, an increase in course length, or any resource.
In accordance with NAVEDTRA 135B, what is the goal of the Instructor Certification and Evaluation Program?
To prepare new instructors to teach without direct supervision, and to ensure all instructors receive frequent constructive feedback to aid them in improving their effectiveness.
In accordance with FLETRACENSDINST 1540.12 (series), state the three minimum requirements (for all courses) for instructor certification.
1. Complete the activity’s Instructor Indoctrination Training. This includes command and course indoctrination training.

2. Attend, as an instructor trainee, the course, or segment of the course for which certification is to be granted.

3. Receive satisfactory evaluations on a minimum of three separate presentations while an instructor trainee.
In accordance with FLETRACENSDINST 1540.12 (series), explain briefly the two purposes of Instructor Evaluations.
1. Evaluations are required to ensure continuous technical qualifications of the instructor.

2. Evaluations also are required to ensure that the instructor uses the most effective technique to accomplish training.
What is a technical evaluation?
An evaluation to ensure the instructor has adequate subject matter expertise to teach the course.
What is a technique evaluation?
An evaluation to determine the effectiveness of instructional skill or strategy.
State the four major areas of an instructor evaluation.
1. Introduction
2. Presentation
3. Instructor/Student Interaction
4. Summary
In accordance with FLETRACENSDINST 1540.12 (series), how many spot-check evaluations are required to be conducted each year on certified instructors?
A minimum of two per instructor.
In accordance with FLETRACENSDINST 1540.12 (series), what is the responsibility of the departmental Instructional Systems Specialist when an instructor is marked UNSATISFACTORY on either a scheduled or unscheduled evaluation?
To conduct a special evaluation on the instructor as soon as possible.
Once certified, how often should Master Training Specialist (MTS) qualified personnel instructing non-high-risk courses be evaluated per FTCSDINST 1540.12 (series)?
Qtrly
State the ultimate goal of instruction.
The ultimate goal of instruction is to cause students to remain motivated beyond the instructor’s influence and apply what they have learned on the job.
Discuss the single most important factor in a student’s educational advancement.
Motivation often has as much or more impact then scholastic ability. Students bring different abilities and experience levels to the training environment. Motivation, or lack thereof, many times determines whether or not a student masters the course objectives.
State and discuss the six common characteristics all students possess.
1. Students share their belief in their maturity. Your students want to be treated as adults.
2. Students have a basic desire to succeed. You must instill self-confidence in students by providing reinforcement that encourages further learning.
3. A common student characteristic is the ability to evaluate. They can quickly detect lack of competence, enthusiasm and sincerity.
4. Fallibilty is a trait we all possess-everyone makes mistakes.
5. Students have a high regard for instructors who show a sense of fair play. Treat all students by the same standards.
6. Recognition is a basic human need in and out of the classroom. Always give recognition to students who respond to questions or contribute to classroom discussions. Be sure to recognize students promptly and to a degree commensurate with their effort.
List and discuss the key principles to applying motivation theory in a training situation.
1. Needs and Drives - A need is usually defined as a deficit or lack that causes a desire for satisfaction. That need, or drive, can cause the student to behave in a manner that eventually reduces the need and results in satisfaction.

2. Interest - Refers to a person’s view of an activity as worthwhile or enjoyable for its own sake. When students understand the need to learn, they are more likely to give their full attention to your instruction.

3. Values - The student’s values, attitudes, and previous experiences affect the nature and amount of what they learn. The motivation you use must fit a student’s value system.

4. Attitudes - Consist of feelings for or against people, objects, or ideas. Showing a positive attitude about the subject you present can cause the student to want to learn.

5. Incentives - Incentives or rewards can stimulate motivation.

6. Achievement - Is a strong desire, a longing, an aim, a goal, or a desired objective. To make an effort to succeed, students must have a need to achieve at a certain level.
List and discuss the five techniques which can assist in developing motivational strategies for instruction.
1. Make the subject matter interesting. Plan motivational strategies to keep the lesson interesting.

2. Establish goals. Ensure that you present the objectives for each block of instruction so that students will understand exactly what they are expected to be able to do as a result of training.

3. Provide informative feedback. Students need feedback when they are trying to meet goals. You can give either oral or written feedback.

4. Show interest in your students. Give students detailed feedback when they respond to a question or perform some task related to instructional objectives.

5. Encourage participation. You should be open to student contributions and points of view.
State the five different ways of learning.
1. Imitation
2. Trail & Error
3. Association
4. Insight
5. Transfer
Discuss the five different ways of learning.
1. Imitation - In a training environment, it is natural for students to observe others (primarily the instructor) and to imitate their behavior.
2. Trail & Error - Sometimes referred to as discovery learning, trial and error is learning by doing.
3. Association - Association is a comparison of past learning to a new learning situation.
4. Insight - Insight is the understanding that the whole is more than the sum of the parts. Learning by insight occurs when the learner suddenly grasps the way elements of a problem situation are connected.
5. Transfer - Transfer is the process of applying past learning to a new but somewhat similar situations.
State the five laws of learning.
1. Readiness
2. Effect
3. Primary
4. Exercise
5. Intensity
List and discuss the five learning senses in their order of importance to the instructional environment.
1. Sight is considered the most important sense, accounting for as much as 75 percent of our basic learning. Most early learning comes from seeing and imitating.

2. Hearing is the second most important sense, accounting for a large percentage of the remaining sensory learning capacity. Speech patterns and volume are critical classroom learning factors.

3. Touch, while important in itself, becomes a major learning factor when combined with other senses. Through experience we become sensitive to temperature , pressure and the overall feel of things.

4. Taste and Smell may not seem important in Navy training. Consider the importance of taste to the training of cooks and bakers. The sense of smell is part of human warning system. For example, electronics immediately recognize the smell of burning insulation. Therefore, the sense of smell is a valuable learning tool in certain narrow applications.

5.The phenomenon of kinesthesia is an extension of sensory learning. Think of it as sensory perception residing in one’s muscles, joints, and tendons that gives people a special awareness of their spatial relationship with their surroundings. Kinesthesia is actually a blend of all senses with psychomotor and perceptual skills. It manifests itself in people’s ability to balance or move with coordination.
State and discuss the four basic learning styles.
1. Concrete learners prefer an experience-based approach to learning.

2. Active learners prefer to learn by becoming involved with the subject and taking an active step-by-step approach.

3. Reflective learners like to observe and reflect (make comparisons and contrasts) before drawing conclusions.

4. Abstract learners prefer a theory-based, analytical approach to learning.
List the percentages of information retained when one or more learning styles is involved in the instructional process.
Abstract = 20% retained
Abstract and reflective = 50% retained
Abstract, reflective, and concrete = 70% retained
Abstract, reflective, concrete and active = 90% retained
State and discuss the three learning domains.
1. Cognitive Domain

-Knowledge (Level 1)- Remembering previously learned information. All that is involved is the recall of the appropriate information.

-Comprehension (Level 2)- Ability to grasp the meaning of material.

-Application (Level 3)- Ability to apply learning in new and concrete ways.

-Analysis (Level 4)- Ability to separate material into its component parts to arrive at an understanding of its component parts to arrive at an understanding of its organizational structure. Learning outcomes that involve decision making, problem solving, or troubleshooting skills normally require this level of understanding.

-Synthesis (Level 5)– Abiltiy to reason from the general to the particular. Synthesis stresses creative behavior that combines many parts into a meaningful whole.

-Evaluation (Level 6)- Ability to judge the value of material based on defined criteria.

2. Affective Domain
*Defines learning outcomes associated with emotions and feelings, such as interest, attitudes, and appreciation.

3. Psychomotor Domain
-Perception (Level 1)- Concerns the students’ use of their sensory organs to obtain cues that guide their motor activity. Sensory stimulation involves students’ learning from awareness of a sight, sound, or scent.

-Set (Level 2)- Refers to the students’ being ready to perform a particular action. This category includes mental set, physical set and emotional set.

-Guided Response (Level 3)- Learning through imitation and trail and error.

-Mechanism (Level 4)- Concerns performance skills of which the learned responses are more practiced then the previous level but less complex then the next higher level.

-Complex Overt Response (Level 5)- At this level the student is expected to demonstrate a high degree of proficiency.

-Adaptation (Level 6)- The student uses previously learned skills to perform new but related tasks.

-Origination (Level 7)- Refers to a studet’s ability for new and creative performance after having developed skill.
State the barriers to effective communications.
1. Lack of Common Core Experience
2. Overuse of Abstraction
3. Fear
4. Environmental Factors
State and discuss the purpose of the three-step communication process.
Effective communication involves a message being sent and received. Added to this however, is the element of feedback to ensure that the message sent was received exactly as intended.
Discuss why listening is one of the most important communication skills.
Listening is an active process of hearing and understanding that demands concentration and attention.
What five factors must be considered in planning instruction delivery?
1. Articulation
2. Grammar
3. Rate of Speech
4. Inflection
5. Force
State and discuss the importance of body movement as an important part of successful communication.
Body movement reinforces, emphasizes and clarifies verbally expressed ideas.
State and discuss the characteristics of a good oral question
1. Level of Instruction-In asking questions, use simple words, correct grammar, and complete sentences.
2. Use of Interrogative-Use the interrogatory word or phrase at the beginning of your question so that students know immediately when you are asking a question.
3. Clarity of Meaning- Avoid the use of catch or trick questions as a teaching device, especially for beginners.
Discuss the types of oral questions and their purposes.
1. Factual Questions- Asks for specific information. The primary purpose of the factual questions is to help students memorize facts. A factual question can also be used to arouse interest, focus attention upon certain parts of the subject matter, and to assist in determining the level of instruction.

2. Thought-provoking Question- Normally begins with such interrogatory expressions as “What is the advantage of,” or “What is the difference between,” and so forth. The value of this type question is that a single question, properly used will stimulate the students to think.

3. Interest-Arousing Question- The main purpose is to focus the students’ attention and get them thinking about the subject you are about to present.

4. Multiple-Answer Question- A question that has more than one correct answer. It can be used to increase students’ answers.

5. Yes/No Question- This type of question has value in arousing interest, focusing attention, encouraging student participation, and serving as a lead-in to other kinds of questions.

6. Leading Question- A question that suggests its own answer.

7. Canvassing Question- Use a canvassing question to determine those who are familiar with a specific area of subject matter. Canvassing questions can help determine class level.
State the five steps of the five-step questioning technique.
1. State the Question

2. Pause…to allow students time to think through their answer

3. Call on one student by name

4. Comment on given answer or acknowledge the response

5. Emphasize or repeat the answer given
List the seven instructional methods.
1. Lecture
2. Lecture with Audiovisuals
3. Lesson
4. Demonstration
5. Role Playing
6. Case Study
7. Discussion
Name the five types of test.
1. Pretest
2. Progress
3. Comprehensive
4. Quiz
5. Oral
Discuss the methods of testing testing and their importance.
Knowledge: A knowledge test measures the achievement of objectives through the use of test items written at the appropriate learning level.

Performance: A performance test measures skill acquisition by having the student demonstrate specific behaviors defined by learning objectives.
Explain the five learning levels a knowledge test item may test.
1. Recognition: Process of verbatim identification of terms, facts, rules, methods, principles, procedures, objects, and the like, presented during training.

2. Recall: Requires the student to respond from memory instead of selecting the response from two or more alternatives. To answer a recall test item, students remember and respond exactly as taught.

3. Comprehension: Requires the understanding of what was taught rather than simply memorizing the information. Used with questions, which require interpretation, explanation, translation, and summarizing information.

4. Application: Ability to use acquired knowledge in a job-related situation. Requires the student to demonstrate knowledge through mental skill exercises like performing computations, using information learned during training, and applying it to a new situation.

5. Analysis/Evaluation: Involves the understanding of elements of data and relationships among the data, which make the meaning of information explicit. Involves the judgement of the value or the effectiveness of procedures or solutions based on data, criteria, or standards.
Discuss the different types of performance tests.
(Used for objectives, which require the demonstration of observable skills. It is a simulated work situation in which students demonstrate their ability to complete procedures, produce a product, or a combination of both.)
Product: Test involves comparing a student's output or product to an acceptable completed example. (Within the standards as set forth in the learning objective.)

Process: Test involves the student's ability to correctly follow procedural steps in completing a task.

Combination: Test involves both process and product where both the end result and the procedures utilized are of equal importance and need to be tested.