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210 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Characteristics of Living Things
-composed of one or more cells
Cell
basic structural and functional unit of all living things (named after rooms in monasteries)
Cell membranes contain...
genetic material, proteins, lipids, carbohydrates, salts, and other substances - (organic compounds b/c they all contain carbon)
Compounds
composed of molecules
Molecules
smallest particles of a substance that retain chemical/physical properties and has two or more atoms
Macromolecules
molecules that form living organisms - contain thousands of elements connected by chemical bonds
Macromolecule types:
Carbohydrates
store and transport energy; provide structural support
Macromolecule types:
Lipids (or fats)
store energy; formed by carbon and hydrogen; do not dissolve in water
Macromolecule types:
Proteins
essential component of living cell; include enzymes, hormones and antibodies; essential for growth and repair of tissue
Macromolecule types:
Nucleic Acids
store genetic materials that leads to replication or organism; store hereditary info
Tissue
series of cells that complete a shared function; can form organs
Organ
fully differentiated structural/functional unit that serves special function
Organ System
organs that work together to accomplish complex series of tasks (e.g., circulatory, digestive systems...)
Prokaryote cells
unicellular; contain cytoplasm and membrane; lack organelles; have no nucleus; example: bacteria
Eukaryote cells
contain organelles, membrane, and chromosomal proteins; examples: paramecia, skin tissue, organs
Organelle
differentiated structure within cell that performs specific function, e.g., nucleus, chromosomes, ribosomes, membrane, cell wall, cytoplasm, etc., etc.
Nucleus
Brain of cell; contains DNA
Nuclear Membrane
membrane that surrounds nucleus
Chromosomes
site of genetic information; contains DNA
Ribosomes
house the machinery for cell function; inside nucleus
Endoplasmic Reticulum
highway of networks of cell tissue
Cell membrane
walls the entire animal cell; regulates entry/exit of substances
Cell Wall
walls the entire plant cell; stronger than cell membrane; regulates entry/exit of substances
Cytoskeleton
"internal framework" of cell; organizes structures in the cell
Cytoplasm
"gelatin" inside cell; protects organelles
Golgi Apparati
"ships" goods from ER to rest of cell
Chloroplasts
site of photosynthesis in plant cells; trap sunlight
Mitochondria
chemical powerhouse of cell; site of cellular respiration
Lysosomes
"waste disposal" sacs of the cell
Vacuoles
"containers" in animal cells for water and organic substances
Central Vacuole
large "holding container" in plant cells for water; helps maintain turgor pressure
Centriole
form spindle fibers to separate chromosomes during cell division
Plant Cell (PC) vs. Animal Cell (AC)
PC: cell wall, chloroplasts, central vacuole. AC: cell membrane, several vacuoles; centriole
Types of Tissues:
Epithelial
line areas of body and surround organs keeping them separate from other organs; e.g., outer layer of skin, tissue that surrounds organs
Types of Tissues:
Connective
add support and structure to the body; e.g., inner layers of skin, tendons, bone, fat, blood
Types of Tissues:
Muscle
can contract; composed of two proteins that allow movement
Types of Tissues:
Nerve
two types of cells - neuron and glial; create and conduct electrical signals managed by brain and transmitted via spinal cord
Blood
specialized fluid that delivers nutrient to cells and transports waste from cells; composed of four types of cells
Cell type in Blood:
red blood cells
most numerous; manufactured in marrow; deliver oxygen from lungs to body tissues via circulatory system
Cell type in Blood:
white blood cells
immune system; manufactured in marrow; fight diseases; # is indicator of infection
Cell type in Blood:
platelets
produced in marrow; release growth factors and aid in clotting
Cell type in Blood:
Plasma
contain salts and various proteins
Antigen
foreign substances located on surface of red blood cells
Antibodies
proteins produced in response to specific antigens; produced by lymphatic organ system; located in blood plasma; help immune system
Blood types
A - carries A antigen; B - carries B antigen; AB - carries A & B antigens; O - carries no antigens (universal donor)
Cell type in Blood:
platelets
produced in marrow; release growth factors and aid in clotting
Cell type in Blood:
Plasma
contain salts and various proteins
Antigen
foreign substances located on surface of red blood cells
Antibodies
proteins produced in response to specific antigens; produced by lymphatic organ system; located in blood plasma; help immune system
Blood types
A - carries A antigen; B - carries B antigen; AB - carries A & B antigens; O - carries no antigens (universal donor)
Rh antigen
presence (or lack of) is a characteristic of blood type;
+ or -
Organ System
Two or more organs working together
Skeletal System
bones/cartilage/tendons/ligaments; provides support, protects organs, provides sites to which organs attach
Integumentary System
skin, hair, nails, sweat glands; provides protection for tissues, excretes waste, regulates temp; largest system
Muscular System
muscles; provides movement, controls movement of matter through organs
Circulatory System
heart, blood vessels, blood (?); transports nutrients, gases, hormones and waste
Nervous System
brain, spinal cord, peripheral nerves; relays electrical signals through body, directs behavior and movement
Respiratory System
nose, trachea, lungs; provides gas exchange between blood and environment
Digestive System
mouth, esophagus, stomach, intestines; breaks down and absorbs nutrients for growth and maintenance
Excretory System
kidneys, ureters, bladder, urethra; filters out waste, toxins and excess water or nutrients
Endocrine System
pituitary, thyroid, pancreas, etc.; relays chemical info along with nervous system to control physiological processes
Reproductive System
manufacture cells that allow reproduction, i.e., sperm and eggs
Lymphatic/Immune System
lymph, lymph nodes and vessels, etc.; destroys microbes and viruses and removes fat and excess fluids from blood
Unique to all living things
metabolism, responsiveness, growth, reproduction, ecology and evolution
Metabolism
living things exchange chemical matter with external environs & transform organic matter within cells resulting in release/use of energy
Responsiveness
living things respond to stimuli such as light, heat, sound, etc.
Growth
living things take in and organize material from environment into its own structures
Reproduction
living thing can produce a copy of itself via reproduction; asexual (bacteria) and sexual (two parents to create offspring)
Heredity
(Gregor Mendel and the pea plants)
set of characteristics an organism receives from its parents
Traits
a characteristic that distinguishes one individual organism from another
Hybrids (heredity)
organisms with certain traits crossed with organisms with other traits
Allele
different forms of a gene
Dominant
expressed allele in hybrid
Recessive
unexpressed allele in hybrid
Phenotype
Traits an organism displays
Genotype
genetic composition of alleles
Mendel's Principles
Individual genes determine biological characteristics; for each gene, an organism receives on allele from one parent and one from the other; one allele may be dominant over another
Ecology (what makes living things unique)
living thing is influenced by environment AND can alter its surroundings
Evolution (what makes living things unique)
living thing can adapt to changes in environment; majority of time: organism develops abilities to deal more effectively with environment
Darwin
credited with conceptualization of diversity of life, adaptation, natural selection, and survival of the fittest
Adaptation (Darwin)
organisms possess traits that enable them to survive
Fitness (Darwin)
ability of an organism to pass on traits to offspring successfully
Natural Selection (Darwin)
only the fittest organisms survive and continue to exist in nature
Kingdoms of Living Things
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Adaptation (Darwin)
organisms possess traits that enable them to survive
Fitness (Darwin)
ability of an organism to pass on traits to offspring successfully
Natural Selection (Darwin)
only the fittest organisms survive and continue to exist in nature
Kingdoms of Living Things
Monera, Protista, Fungi, Plantae, Animalia
Carolus Linnaeus
developed taxonomic classification to organize living things in mid 1700s;
binomial nomenclature
two-name system to identify an organism by listing genus and species
Virus
not in any kingdom; not considered living; can't reproduce without a living host
All plants need...
water, nutrients (especially nitrogen) from soil, carbon dioxide, and sunlight
Plants manufacture _____ and _____ through photosynthesis.
oxygen; sugar
Three Groups of Plants (according to life cycle)
Annual (completes entire life cycle in one full year), Biennial (takes about two years to complete cycle), Perennial (lives more than 3 years)
Photosynthesis
process of converting light energy to chemical energy; occurs in plants and algae; takes place in leaves (chloroplasts)
Light Reaction (photosynthesis)
light energy converted to chemical energy
Dark Reaction (photosynthesis)
converts CO2 and water into sugar, stored as starch
Respiration
enables animals to use oxygen to release carbon dioxide into the environment, which is then used by plants for photosynthesis
Mutualism
two organisms interact to benefit of both
Commensalism
one organism benefits, other is unharmed (barnacles)
Parasitism
one benefits at expense of other (tapeworm)
Amensalism
one is destroyed, other is unaffected (animals trample grass, grass dies)
Biome
geographical area that contains distinctive plant and animal groups adapted to that environment (determined by geography and climate)
Ecosystem
living community that is composed of complex relationships between each member and environment
Habitat
areas or environments where an organism lives
Food chain/Food web
Living part of an ecosystem; plants at beginning of chain (producers); Consumers eat plants and other organisms
Carnivores
eat only animals (sharks, numerous mammals)
Herbivores
eat plants (rodents, deer, cattle)
Omnivores
eat both plants and animals (humans)
Decomposers
feed off dead plants and animals (fungi and bacteria)
Simple life cycle
Before/At birth...Infancy (youth)...Adult
Complex life cycle
Includes metamorphosis
Metamorphosis
biological process during which an animal progresses through several distinctive changes in body structure (butterfly)
Life Cycle of Butterfly
Eggs, Caterpillar, Pupa or Chrysalis, Adult emerging from Chrysalis, Butterfly
Life Cycle of Amphibian
Egg, Tadpole with external gills, Legs appear then forelimbs, Frog
Molting
periodic shedding of all or part of outer covering (i.e., skin, shell, feathers, exoskeleton, etc.)
Matter
Physical material that occupies space and has mass
Mass
measure of the amount of material in an object (think: astronaut in space still has mass)
Weight
Force that mass exerts as a result of gravity (think: astronaut in space is weightless)
Newton's Law of Gravity
there is an attractive force between all masses
Volume
three-dimensional space occupied by matter; expressed as meter-cubed (m to the 3rd power)
Density
amount of mass in a unit volume of a substance; density = mass over volume (think: lead has higher density than a feather)
Solids
Definite volume and shape; cannot be compressed
Liquids
Distinct volume, takes shape of container; cannot be compressed
Gas
No distinct volume and shape; volume conforms to container; can be compressed and expanded
Plasma
like a gas, but can conduct electricity (lightning); volume and shape conform to container
Pure substances
Cannot be broken down by chemical or physical means (anything on periodic table, water, table salt, etc.)
Physical Properties
Can be measured without changing the substance: taste, odor, density, color, melting and boiling points, hardness
Chemical Properties
How substance will interact with other substances: flammability, radioactivity, sensitivity to light, oxidation, toxicity
Physical Change
Substance changes physical appearance but not identity (ice to water, water to vapor)
Chemical Change
Substance changes to another substance (logs burnt in a fireplace, egg cooked, car rusts; photosynthesis, respiration, digestion)
Mixture
combination of two or more substances in which eat retains identity (oil & water, sand & water, concrete)
Elements
Cannot be decomposed into simpler substances; Mendeleev first created Periodic Table of Elements
Compounds
Composed of two or more elements that are chemically combined
Atomic Theory (Dalton)
1) each element composed of atoms; 2) all atoms of one element are identical; 3) atoms of different elements have diff properties; 4) atoms are neither created nor destroyed; 5) atoms can combine to form compounds; 6) in any compound, number and kind of atoms are constant
Law of Conservation of Matter or Mass
matter cannot be created or destroyed
Law of Constant Composition
the composition of a substance is alway the same (molecule of water will always have two atoms hydrogen, one atom oxygen)
Law of Multiple Proportions
the masses of one element combined with another element are always whole numbers
Law of Conservation of Energy
energy cannot be created or destroyed (amount of energy required to light up a bulb is equal to amount of energy emitted by the light bulb)
Atom
Protons (positive charge) and Neutrons (no charge) in the nucleus; Electrons (negative charge)
Molecule
Combination of two or more tightly bound atoms; acts as a singular object
Energy
Capacity of a physical system to perform work; can be transferred as heat (forms: heat, sound, chemical, nuclear, light, mechanical, electrical, electromagnetic)
Potential Energy
energy that is stored in matter (object in rubber band pulled back in slingshot -- energy is potential; kinetic after object leaves band)
Kinetic Energy
energy contained in a moving mass
Conduction (transfer of heat energy)
atoms and molecules collide to transfer kinetic energy (atomic and molecular level)
Convection (transfer of heat energy)
heat moves from hot region to cold, but involves large amt of matter, thus macroscopic (heating water)
Radiation (transfer of heat energy)
light energy in form of heat transferred from sun to earth; moves in electromagnetic waves
Waves (electromagnetic)
specific properties; each color on spectrum has specific wavelength and emits specific amt of energy
Motion
any spatial and/or temporal change in a physical system; described in terms of velocity, acceleration, displacement and time
Vector
quantity that has size and direction; symbolized by arrow
Velocity
rate of change of an object
Acceleration
change in velocity over time
Displacement
distance from the point at which the object is at rest to the end point of motion
Time
denotes sequence of, duration of, and intervals between events
Sir Isaac Newton
laws of motion
First Law of Motion
object at rest remains stationary and object in motion moves at same speed unless acted on by unbalanced force
Inertia
tendency of an object to resist change in motion
Second Law of Motion
when a force is placed on an object, it will accelerate in the direction of the force; acceleration is proportion to force applied
Third Law of Motion
every action has an equal and opposite reaction (recoil of gun)
Lever
bar that rotates around a fixed point called a fulcrum (three classes depend on location of fulcrum and input/output forces) (1st: seesaw, 2nd: nail clippers, 3rd: baseball bat)
Wheel and Axle
large wheel secured to smaller wheel or axle; when one part turns, other part turns
Pulley
Grooved wheel turns freely in a frame called a block; can change direction of a force and gain mechanical advantage
Inclined Plane
Even surface that slopes (ramp, ladder, stairs); remains stationary
Wedge
Modification of inclined plane; used to separate or hold something; can move (scissor blades)
Screw
Modified version of inclined plane
Compound/Complex Machines
combinations of simple machines (wheelbarrow: wheel and axle and lever; can opener: wheel, lever, wedge)
Time for Earth to Orbit Sun
approx. 365 days
Time for Earth to rotate on its axis
approx 24 hours
Distance between Earth and Sun
93 million miles
Coldest temp on Earth
-128.5 degrees F (Antarctica - 1983)
Highest temp on Earth
136.4 degrees F (Libya - 1922)
Major components of breathable air
Nitrogen (78.08%); Oxygen (20.94%)
Moon orbits Earth in...
approx. 28 days (month)
Earth is...
wider at the equator than from the North to South Pole
Solar eclipse
moon travels between Sun and Earth during middle of day and blocks Sun's light from Earth
Lunar Eclipse
Moon moves into Earth's shadow during the night and blocks the moon from the Earth (from the sun's rays, no?)
Physical Earth
inner core, outer core, mantle, upper mantle, crust
Inner core
solid -- contains nickel
Outer core
liquid - contains lead (two times as thick as inner core)
Mantle
below crust; flexible; upper composed or rock; lower is hot and plastic-like (?)
Crust
outermost surface; two types -- continental and oceanic
Lithosphere
layer that includes crust and part of upper mantle; site of volcanoes, earthquakes, continental drifts, etc.
Tectonic Plates
100 k thick; continental and oceanic crust; convection (heat energy) causes plates to move constantly in diff directions; 8 major ones and many minor
Boundaries
where tectonic plates meet; most active volcanoes located there
Relief
difference in elevation between two points
Igneous Rocks
formed by molten rock
Sedimentary Rock
formed by rocks and minerals resulting from chemical and physical breakdown of pre-existing rocks; e.g., quartz, shale, limestone
Metamorphic Rock
changed into another kind of rock (usually by heat or pressure); e.g., marble
Properties of Rock
hardness, luster, density, cleavage, fracture, twinning, transparency, color, special light effects, streak
Water Cycle
Accumulation, Evaporation/Transpiration, Condensation, Precipitation, and Run-Off
Transpiration
water is absorbed through roots of plants, moves to leaves, and evaporates into atmopshere
Weather -- factors that impact
latitude, altitude, prevailing winds, distance from sea, ocean currents, Earth's tilt, mountains, people
Splash Erosion (exogenous process modifying Earth)
rain splashes down and knocks soil particles into air
Sheet Erosion (exogenous process modifying Earth)
particles unearthed via splashing move downhill to cause sheet-flooding
Ice as Erosive Force
Powerful erosive force; water under glacier freezes and breaks off pieces of rock
Waves as Erosive Forces
seriously erode rocks along the coastline
Ocean Waves
characterized by height, length, period, and speed; carry energy across vast distances
Tides
created by pull of gravitational force; fluctuate daily as moon, Earth and Sun interact; pull of Earth's side closest to moon pulls ocean water and creates bulge
Empiricism
use of evidence that is based on the senses and can be replicated, critiqued, and experienced by other scientists
Rationalism
use of logical reasoning; not instinctive or intuitive
Skepticism
persistent interrogation of beliefs and conclusions
Scientific Inquiry
asking questions, gathering evidence, considering alternative explanations, weighing evidence, drawing and articulating conclusions
Themes of Scientific Discovery
tension between science/govt/religion have existed since beginning of time; war/warfare promote advances in tech/engineering; scientific thinking enhances communication and further discovery; discoveries about nature/evolution/body have led to engineering breakthroughs that pervade all aspects of life; interdisciplinary nature of scientific discovery
Questioning (scientific inquiry)
Process of posing factual, analytical, evaluative questions that seek to inquire about events in the natural world
Observation (scientific inquiry)
process of using all senses and tech to gather info
Hypothesizing (scientific inquiry)
process of posing educated guess or possible theory or statement
Variable (scientific inquiry)
Dependent: NOT under our control; Independent: IS under our control, we manipulate in order to see what happens
Descriptive Clarity
What is known about how this study was conducted?
Data Quality
Are data sources legitimate, credible and rational?
Analytic Integrity
Are findings credible, replicable, and trustworthy?