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23 Cards in this Set

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alphabetic principle
The ability to associate sounds with letters and use these sounds to form words.
phonemic awareness
a subset of phonological awareness in which listeners are able to hear, identify and manipulate phonemes, the smallest units of sound that can differentiate meaning. Separating the spoken word "cat" into three distinct phonemes, /k/, /æ/, and /t/, requires phonemic awareness skill.
phoneme isolation
which requires recognizing the individual sounds in words, example, "Tell me the first sound you hear in the word paste" (/p/).
phoneme identity
which requires recognizing the common sound in different words, for example, "Tell me the sound that is the same in bike, boy and bell" (/b/).
phoneme substitution
in which one can turn a word (such as "cat") into another (such as "hat") by substituting one phoneme (such as /h/) for another (/c/). Phoneme substitution can take place for initial sounds (cat-hat), middle sounds (cat-cut) or ending sounds (cat-can).
oral segmenting
The teacher says a word, for example, "ball," and students say the individual sounds, /b/, /ɑ/, and /l/.
oral blending
The teacher says each sound, for example, "/b/, /ɑ/, /l/" and students respond with the word, "ball."
sound deletion
The teacher says word, for example, "bill," has students repeat it, and then instructs students to repeat the word without a sound.
onset rime manipulation
which requires isolation, identification, segmentation, blending, or deletion of onsets (the single consonant or blend that precedes the vowel and following consonants), for example, j-ump, st-op, str-ong.
phonological awareness
the conscious sensitivity to the sound structure of language. It includes the ability to auditorily distinguish parts of speech, such as a word's syllables and a syllable's individual phonemes.
awareness of print
understand that the squiggly lines on a page represent spoken language. They understand that when adults read a book, what they say is linked to the words on the page, rather than to the pictures.
phonics
English. Phonics involves teaching children to connect sounds with letters or groups of letters (e.g., that the sound /k/ can be represented by c, k, or ck spellings) and teaching them to blend the sounds of letters together to produce approximate pronunciations of unknown words.
grapheme
is a unit (a letter or letters) of a writing system that represents one phoneme ; a single sound that has one phonemic correspondent.
digraph
a pair of characters used to write one phoneme (distinct sound) or a sequence of phonemes that does not correspond to the normal values of the two characters combined.
automatic word recognition skills-- and how to teach
LOOK UP!!
-r controlled vowels
When a vowel is followed by an r, it makes a special sound. These are called r-controlled vowels, or r-colored vowels. These phonemes are as follows:

/ar/ sound as in car, guitar, Arthur
/âr/ sound as in care, bear, mare, scare, aquarium
/îr/ sound as in pier
/ir/ sound as in turnip, spider, certificate, and beaver
/or/ sound as in manor, observatory, author, brought, and orchard
/er/ sound as in butter, cutter, and mother
structural analysis
the process of using familiar word parts (base words, prefixes, and suffixes) to determine the meaning of unfamiliar words.
homonym
Also- homograph! A word which is spelled and pronounced identically to another word, but which has a different meaning. For example, a swimming POOL versus a POOL table.
homophone
A word which is spelled differently from another word, but which is pronounced identically. For example, HOARSE versus HORSE; or TWO versus, TO, versus, TOO.
norm-referenced assessment
This is a type of assessment that allows an individual child's score to be compared against the scores of other children who have previously taken the same assessment. With a norm-referenced assessment, the child's raw score can be converted into a comparative score such as a percentile rank or a stanine. Contrast with criterion-referenced assessment.
morphology
An examination of the morphemic structure of words; an appreciation of the fact that words with common roots share common meanings, and that affixes change words in predictable and consistent ways.
rapid automatic word recognition (1st grade) can be supported by:
teaching students to apply consistent phonics generalizations in common words.
implicit phonics instruction can include:
encouraging students to look for words or word parts in environmental print.