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154 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Which of the following was not characteristic of iberian society?
absence of slaveholding trading
how was the commercial experience of Portuguese extended to the Americas
The portugese experience in Africa and their involvement in slave trading was extended to the americas.
Where in the Americas did the spanish create the models that were applied throughout their possesions in the new world?
The caribbean
The last spanish colony was established on
hispaniola
the grants of indians to individual spaniards as a labor system were called
encomiendas
the dominican friar bartolom e de las casas, a conqinstador turned priest
became an ardent supporter o conversion of indians and an advocate of indian rights
All of the followinn were advantages the spanish enjoyed over the indians except
the failure of nomadic tribes to mount significant resistance to conquest
what accounted for the majority of the population loss suffered by native americans after the European arrival?
epidemic diseases
the tremendous decline of the indian population was matched by the rapid increase in
european livestock
Which of the following indian institutions were retained by the spanish to serve European administrative purposes?
the indian nobility
The colonial gov. replaced the labor of the encomiendas with indian labor extracted through local oficials such forced labor was called
mita
Which of the following statements most accuratley describes the nature of the ceonomy in spanish america
although the majority of people were engaged in agr. the whole spanish commericail sysytem was organized around the mining economy.
in what way did the importation of american bullion negatively affect the spanish economy?
the arrival of american treasure contributed to a sharp rise in prices and a general inflation.
the treaty of tordesillas of 1494 divided the world into spheres of influence belonging to
portugal and castile
what group of people were most critical to the bureaucratic administration of the spanish colonies in America?
university-trained lawyers
the catholic church introduced all of the following to american life except
the sense of independence from the state
what colony became the first major plantation zone organized to produce a tropical crop in demand in europe
brazil
by 1700 slaves comprised approximately what proportion of the Brazilian pop.?
one half
the brazilian model of plantation colony was later followed in the eighteenth century by other european nations in
the caribbean
what was the primary difference btwn the spanish and portugueses empires?
unlike the spanish empire that was almost exclusively american, the portuguese empire included colonies and outposts in asia and africa as well in brazil
what conditions undercut the posison of the brazilian sugar plantation?
competition from english, french, and dutch plantation colonies in the caribbean led to rising prices for slaves and falling prices for sugar
what port was associated with discovery of gold in brazil and subsequently became the capitcal of the colony?
rio de janeiro
what was the negative impact of the discovery of gold on portugal
portugal failed to develop internal industries b/c the supply of gold allowed the portuguese to purchase manufactured goods from other european countries.
what was the basis for the social hierarchy that develped in the americas?
race
what spanish dynasty was responsible for the series of eighteenth century reforms that recast the colonial administration of the amricas?
bourbon
which of the following statements concerning the 18th century spanish reforms in america is most accurate?
the french intendancy system was introduced. goverment improved, but the traditional patterns of influence and power among the Creole bureaucrats was disrupted
which of the following was not and impact of the bourbon reforms on colonial economy
the frontiers of spanish america becamed fixed
the minister responsible for the 18th century reforms in portugal and brazil was
the marquis of pombal
what was the impace of the 18th century reforms on slavery in brazil?
brazil as profoundly based on slavery in the late 18th century as it had ever been
wich of the following statements most accuratley describes the state of the portuguese and spanish american colonies by the middle of the 18th century
the american colonies of spain and portugal were experiencing considerable growth in pop. and productive capacity.
what accournts for the general failure of 18th cnetury colonial revolutions againts spanish and portuguese rule?
the various racial and social groups, fearful or unsettling the social hierarchy, failed to act together to unseat hte colonial gov.
which of the following was not one of the early islamic empires
abbasid
which of the following does not represent a similarity btwn the three muslim early modern empires?
each empire was based on religion and its society was oriented toward domination of the mullahs.
which of the following represents a differnce btwn the various muslim early modern empires?
the ottoman empire was primarily sunnite while the safavide empire was shi'ite.
Pior to the mongol invasions of their empire, the abbaside dynasty was dominated by
the seljuk turks
the original base of the ottoman turks was
anatolia
following the timurid invasions, the ottoman empire was restored under
Mehmed I
the ottomans conqured constantinople and ended the Byzantine Empire in
1453
which of the following statements concerning ottoman naval power is most accurate?
powerful ottoman gally fleets captured major island bases in E. mediterranean, but were unable to prevent Western advances in the Indian Ocean.
th Janissaries were
slave troops of the Ottoman foricbly conscripted as adolescnets from conquered territories
what permitted the janissaries to gaina position of prominence in the ottoman empire
their control of artillery and firearms gave them prominence over the aristocratic turkis cavalry
the head of the ottoman central bureaucracy was the
vizier
what did the ottomans do to constantinople following its fall in 1453?
soon after its conquest, the ottoman sutan undertook the restoration and beurification of contantiople.
what was the chosen language of the ottoman court?
turkish
how did the ottoman dynsasty compare to other ruling families?
the ottoman dynasty lasted over 600-- a feat matched by no other ruling family
on the sea,the ottoman galleys were eclipsed by western naval power as early as the
16th century
what european nation first threatened the ottoman monopoly of trade with e. africa n india
portugal
which of the follwing groups represented such extreme coservatism within the ottoman empire that reform was frustrated?
Janissaries
which of the following represents a diff. btwn the declines of the abbasids and the ottomans
the ottomans were at a much greater disadvantage as a result of the more potent threat from the west?
which of the following represnets a difference btwn the origins of the ottomans and the safavids
the safavids represented the shi'ite train of islam
the center of the safavid empire was the modern day state of
iran
the safavid dynasty had its origins in the 14th century in a family devoted to what variant of islam
sufi
the first safavid shah was
isma'il
why was the battle of chaldiran in 1514 so impt?
the safavids were dealt a desvastating defeat that checked the westward advance of shi'ism and decimated the ranks of the turkic warriors who had buitl the safavid empire
the safavid empire reached its greates exten under shah
abbas the great
What was the status of the turkic chiefs under the safavid shahs
like the ottomans, the turkish chiefs were gradually transformed into a warrior nobility with assigned villages and peasant labor
after chaldiran, the official lang. of the safavid empire became
persian
the capital of the safavid empire under abbas the great was
isfahan
what led to the rapid demise of the safavid empire
like the ottoman empire, the lack of a principle of succession led abbas the great to eliminate all capable rivals, leaving no capable ruler following his deaht.
the immediate succestor of the safavid dynasty in persia was
nadir khan afshar
the founder of the mughal dynasty was
babur
the first mughal emperor successfully defeated the muslim ruler of the lodi dynasty in 1526
panipat
which of the following descriptions of the accomplishments of babur is not accurate
he reformed the ineffective lodie bureacuracy to create a streamlined admistration
which of the following statements most accurately characterized the reign of humayan
despite the seeming stability of babur's reign, his son humayan was exiled by 1540 and forced to fight to restore the mughal rule
which of the following statements concerning the reign of akbar is not accurate
he attempted to purify islam by removing hidu influences
what was the critical feature of akbar's new religion, the din-i-llahi
it attempted to blend elements of the many faiths with which he was familiar as a means of reconciling hidus and muslims
what was the outcome of the din-i0llahi
by akbar's death in 1605, the din-i-llahi was rejected by both muslim nad hidus
which of the follwoing statements concerning the ceonomy of the mughal empire iws mos t accurate?
european traders brought products from thourhgout asia to exchange for the subcontinent's famed cotton textiles
what was the state of the mughal dynasty at the outset of reign of aurangezeb
the mughal bureaucracy was bloated and corrupt, the army was backward in weaponry and tatics, and the peasants and artisans had seen living standards fall.
what were the goals of Aurangzeb?
he was determined to extend the mughal control voer the whole of the indian subontinent and believed it was his duty to purify indian islam.
What was the state of the mughal empire following aurangzeb's death in 1707
the empire was far larger thatn earlier, but control and state revenues passed increasingly to regional lords who gave little more that tribute payments to the emperors.
which of the following statements concerning the relationships of the muslim empires to the west is not accurate
the absence of minority peoples within the empires left them withought commercial and cultural contacts with the west.
what was the african contribution to the colombian exchange
slaves
which of the following was not considered a factor in the develpment of the large kingdoms in africa
collapse of the christian kingdom in ethiopia in the face of muslim advance
what european nation first established direct contact with black africa
portugal
where was the most impt. early portuguese trade fort located
el mina
which of the following statements concerning the early portuguese trade forts is most accurate
most of the forts were established with the agreement of license of local rulers
which of the african kingdoms was most successfully converted to christianity by portugueses missionaries
kongo
following the model established bye the portuguese, which of the following was not on of the principle of european contact with africa?
widespread european colonization
which of the following statements about slavery in europe before 1450 was most accurate?
slavery had died out in the middle ages in most of europe except along the military frontiers btwn christians and muslims in the mediterranean
the firs slaves brought directly to portugal from africa arrived in
1441
in what manner did the portuguese seize most of the slaes that were transported from africa?
they traded for them with african rulers
what development led to an intensification of the portuguese involement in the african slave trade?
develpment of sugar plantations on the atlantic islands of madeira and the canaries
what is the best estimate of the nubmer of african shipped across the atlantic btwn 1450 abd 1850?
12 million
in what century did the atlantic slave trade reach its zenith in terms of numbers of african exported?
eighteenth
which of the following statements concerning the volume of the slave trade to the american colonies is most accurate?
the high volume of the slave trade was a necessity because slave mortality ws high and fertility was low leading toa loss of slave pop.
In what way did the trans- saharan slave trade differ from that of the atlantic slave trade
the trans-saharan slave trade concentrated on woemn, but the atlantic slave trade concentrated on young men
what was the demographic impact of the slave trade on africa>
the slave trade had the impact of skewing the pop. of central africa in favor of a disproportional number of women
how did the british organize the shipment of slave to americas?
in britain, the chartered royal african company was granted a monopoly over the shipment of slaves to colonies in the americas
the spanish term for a healthy adult male slave was
indies piece
what was teh average profitability of the english slave trade in the late eighteenth century?
5-10 percent
how did the profitability of the slave trade compare to that of other contemporary business ventures?
the slave trade was a little more profitable than most business activities of the age and was not a major source for the industrial revolution of europe
what was the term utilized for the commercial arrangement by which african slaves were shipped to teh americas, sugar and tobacco were carried to europe, and european manufactured goods, were transported to africa?
triangular trade
What was the political impact of the presence of eruopeans on the african coast?
west and central african kingdoms just inland from the forts began to redirect their trade and expand their influence
in what way did the european slave trade enable centralizing states ti expand more rapidly
slaves were traded for fireamrs that allowed expanding states to overpower therif neighbors, resulting in more slaves
which of the following was a large african state taht develped in wester africa during the period of the atlantic slave trade?
asante
under whose rule was unity achieved among the numerous akan clans of asante
osei tutu
the title given to the supreme civil and religious ruler of the asante kingdom was
asantehene
on the east coast of africa, the swahili trading cities
continued their commerce in the indian ocean with both the portuguese and the ottoman turks
one of the unique features of the east african coast that differeed from the west africa was
the establishment of plantations producing cloves using african slave labor.
an example of the acceptance of milotic peoples as ruling dynasties among the bantu was the luo at
bunyoro
the muslim reform movement of the 1770s that swept through the trade networks in senegambia and the western sudan was what variant islam?
sufi
usuman dan fodio began rebellion in what african kingdom in 1804?
hausa
usuman dan fodio's rebellion eventuallyl led to the formation of what caliphal state?
sokoto
what area of africa was least affected by the slave trade?
southern africa
in 1652 what group established a colony at the cape of good hope?
the dutch east india company
in 1818 who assumed leadership in the Zulu chiefdom of the nguni people of southern africa
shaka
what was the impact of the mfecane?
resulting political disruption sent african groups fleeing before the zuhus into both portuguese coastal regions and the boer farms of southern africa
what was the average mortality for slaves shipped to the americas in the atlantic slave trade?
18-20 percent
the slave voyage to the americas was referred to as the
middle passage
why were the africans sought for plantation labor in the americas?
west africans were already familiar with metallurgy, hearding, and intensive agriculture wheras indians were not
how were the british colonies of the southern atlantic coast of north america different from the latin american colonies?
the british colonies depended less on imported africans b/c the positive of growth among the slaves.
which of the following statements concerning slave families is most accurate?
despite enormous difficulties, slaves contiuted to live in family units
which of the following statements concerning resistance to slavery is most accurate?
recalcitrance, running away, and direct rebellion were present wherever slaves were employed.
which of the following statements concerning the ending of the slave trade is most accurate?
while it is true that legitimate products began to replace slaves in the european commerce with africa, its is difficult to demonstrate a link between economic self- interest and the abolition of the slave trade
the ultimate task of all the explorations launched by the europeans from teh fourteenth century onward was
finding a sea link btwn europe and the wealthy civilizations of asia
despite their armaments, what factor convinced the europeans that they could make little headway againts teh kingdoms of asia?
large pop. of asain kingdoms
what was the portuguese lesson learned at calicut?
western products brought for trade were of little or no value in indian markets
what was the initial portuguese response to the encounter at calicu?
they applied military force to obtain desired asian products
what peoples had preceded the protuguese in entering the markets of south and souteast asia?
muslims
which of the following products ws associated with the arabian zone of the asain sea trading network?
glass
which of the following products was associated with the indian zpone of the asian sea trading network?
cotton textiles
wihcih of the following products was not one of the products associated with the chinese zone of the asina sea trading network?
cotton textiles
What raw materials were most highly valued in teh asain sea trading network?
spices
which of the folloing items wsa more likely to be exchanged within the ports of each of the main trading rather than over greater distance btwn zones?
rice
what was the nature of the sea routes in the asain trading network?
most of the navigation was along the coastline.
which of the following was one of the crusial points in the asain sea trading network where trade coverged?
the straits of malacca
which of the following statements most accurately describes the nature of the asian sea trading network?
there was no central control, and force was usually absent from commercial exchanges.
why were the protuguese unwilling to exchange bullion for products within the asain commercial system?
the doctrine of mercantilism equated possession of bullion with power and argued againt negative trade balances.
why did the protuguese beleive they could successfully enter the asian sea trading by force
the protuguese had fewer ships, but they were more numerous than those of their asain opponents.
the portuguese won a mojor sea battle over a combined fleet of egyptian and indian vessels in 1509 at?
diu
what trade did the potugues intend to monopolize within the asian trading network
spices
how successful was the portuguese monopoly on asain products?
though they managed to monopolize some spices grown in limited locales, the portugueses lacked the manpower and ships to sustain a monoploy.
who succeeded the portuguese as the most successful european entrant into the asian sea trading network?
holland
where was the chief dutch trading fortress and port in southeast asia?
batavia
how did the dutch commercial strategy within the asian trade networkd differ from that of the portuguese?
the dutch were more systematic in their monoploy control of a limited number of specific spices.
in what way did the dutch and english participation within the asain sea trading network change by the middle decades of the seventeeth century?
for bot hteh dutch and the english, peaceful commerce came to be more profitable than forcible control and monopolies were aimed at european rather than asian rivals.
among which of the following groups did roman catholic missionaries enjoy some success?
outcaste groups in indian coastal regions
the first ming emperor of china was
hongwu
which of the following reforms was not introduced by the first ming emperor?
family influence in the selection of men to the chinese bureaucracy was eliminated
which of the following statements concerning ming reforms in favor of the peasantry is most accurate?
despite some attempts to improve economic conditions for the peasantry, the growing power of the rural landlords ledto increased tenancy and landless laboreres.
which of the following statements concerning ming socail organization is most accurate?
under the continued influence of neo-confucian ideology, min society remained rigidly stratified iwth emphasis on deference of youth to elders nad women to men.
which of the follwoing reason is at least in part responsible for the peopling of the yangtze region in the southern part of china during the ming era?
the into. of crops from teh americas that coulg be cultivated on inferior soils that did not require irrigation.
Where were foreigners permitted to do business in china during the ming era?
at macao and canton
which of the following statements concerning the ming economy is most accurate?
much merchant wealth was ivested in land as a means of socail advancement.
during the reign of what ming emperor did the chinese launch commercial expeditions to southeast asia, persia and africa?
yunglo
why did chinese abandon the commercial voyages of the zhenghe expeditons?
there was little of value for the chinese to import in trade,and the voyages were expensive to carry out.
in what way did the jesuit missionaries maintain their positions at the court of the ming emperors?
by demonstrating knowledge of scientific and technological skills
what group successfully asserted in control over china following the collapse of the ming dynasty?
the jurchens or manchus
what dynasty succeeded in ming in china?
qing
which of the follwoing was not one of the three military centralizers of japan?
hiata ashikaga
in what year was the tokugawa shogunate founded, marking the reestablisment of central gov. in japan?
christianity was seen as a counterforce to the buddhist orders that opposed the impostion of central rule.
which of the following was not a policy imposed as a result of japanese isolation in the 17th centuryt.
the japanese elite abandoned all contact wit hwestern learning and technological advances.
the greatest silber mine was located at
potosi