Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/20

Click to flip

20 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
"bamboo spine" is characteristic of what disease?
ankylosing spondylitis
positively birefringent means that yellow crystals are (parallel/perpendicular) to the red compensator. This is characteristic of what disease?
positively birefringent = yellow crystals are perpendicular
=pseudogout (CPPD)
negatively birefringent means that yellow crystals are (parallel/perpendicular) to the red compensatory. This is characteristic of what disease?
yellow crystals are parallel. Characteristic of gout (MSUM)
what does podagra refer to?
monoarthritis of the big toe (usually the initial presentation of gout!)
what are tophi?
accululation of uric acid in the form of nodules. Can be seen around hands or around any joint. If break through skin --> chalky.
is gout negatively or positively birefringent?
negatively birefringent (yellow crystals are parallel)
what are the 3 tx of gout for an acute attack?
1. NSAID
2. cholchicine
3. prednisone
Probenacid does what?
encourage uric acid excretion (contraindicated in those with uric acid kidney stones!)
allopurinol does what?
inhibits xanthine oxidase, therefore promoting salvage and decreased synthesis of uric acid
when shouldn't you use allopurinol?
during an acute attack
chondrocalcinosis on xray is pathognomonic for what?
CPPD (pseudogout)
what is the committed step in the formation of purines?
PRPP --> PR-amine
this rxn is catalyzed by PRPP. Thus anything that increases the [PRPP] will increase de-novo purine synthesis
what does salvage refer to?
the convertion of nucleosides or purine bases back to nucleotides
explain how transport across membranes requires salvage?
Nucleosides can be transported across membranes, but nucleotides can't be. Some tissues (like brain and blood cells) cannot make purines by de-novo synthesis. Thus, nucleotides made elsewehre go to the liver, get converted to nucleosides, and then go to the brain or RBCs) where they go through the salvage pathway to be converted back to nucleotides
what is the role of nucleoside kinases and nucleotide kinases?
distibute P's among AMP, ADP , and ATP
what is the role of PRTases?
they combine nucleosides PLUS PRPP to form nucleotides (salvage pathway)
PRPP has 2 options in what reactions it can participate in. What are they?
1. de novo (catalyze its own conversion to PR-amine)

2. salvage - combine with PURINE BASES to becomce nucleotides again
the salvage of a nucleoside is done by _____. Where as teh salvage of a purine base is done by _______.
kinase

PRTases (have to combine with PRPP)
purines that are not salvages are catabolized to xanthine and then uric acid by
xanthine oxidase
whether de novo synthesis occurs or not is dependent on the concentration of
nucleoTIDES