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46 Cards in this Set

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* G+, clustered cocci, non-motile, non-spore forming, fac. anaerobe, bronze/yellow colonies
* catalase+, coagulase+, Mannitol & NaCl growth, Beta hemolysis
* exotoxins: 4 hemolysins, PVL, enterotoxin A/F, TSST, Exfoliatin
* VFs: beta-lact, mutPBPs, Protein A, Misc. Enzymes
* nose, skin, mucus mems, fomites, food
Staph Aureus Characteristics
* Transmit: nosocomial, direct, food, penumo, hemato
* impetigo, folliculitis, furuncles, carbuncles, scalded skin in kids (Ritter's)
* wound infections
* food poisoning
* TSS
* Aspir Pneumo & Empyema
* Osteomyelitis (#1 cause)
* Infective arthritis (#1 cause)
* Acute Endocarditis (#1 cause)
* Bacteremia & Sepsis (#1 cause)
Staph Aureus Clinical
* G+, fac. anaerobic, extracellular
* Clusters, tetrads of cocci
* Catalase + only, NO coag.
* No exotoxins, but has slimy glycoclayx and beta lactamases, mutant PBPs
* skin & mucus membranes
Staph Epidermidis Characteristics
* Infxs of artifical implants (caths, IVs, tubes, etc)
* Bactermia and sepsis
* subacute endocardiditis
* neonatal bacteremia
* TX: Vanc, novobiocin
Staph Epidermidis Clinical & Tx
* G+, fac. anaerobic, extracellular
* Clusters of cocci
* Catalase + only, NO coag
* No exotoxins, but MDR and has urease
* genitourinary skin
Staph Saprophyticus Characteristics
* UTIs (upper and lower), mostly in young, healthy sexually active women (dysuria, pyuria)
* TX: TMP-SMZ or levofloxacin
Staph Saprophyticus Clinical & Tx
* G+, aerobic, extracellular
* Chains of cocci
* Catalase -
* Beta hemolytic (O&S), erythrogenic toxin, protein M (80 types), capsule (HA), hyaluronidase, peptidase, streptokinase, DNase, LTA, Pili, F-protein (establish infection)
* skin & oropharynx
Stept pyogense (Group A, GAS) Characteristics
Transmit: person to person
* Impetigo, Cellulitis** (#1 cause), erysipelas (slapped cheek)
* Necrotizing Faciitis
* Pharyngitis**
* Scarlet Fever (erythrogenics)
* AGN (skin or pharynx via DNAse, antiDNAase B important test)
* Acute Rheumatic Fever (only from pharyn)
* TX: PCN G, Eythro, Oxacillin, BenzaPCN, Sulfonamides, Bacitracin
Strept Pyogenes (Group A) Clinical & Tx
* binds Fc of IgG
* protects from opsonization & phagocytosis
Protein A
(staph Aur)
* converts fibrinogen to fibrin
* provides protective mesh
Coagulase
* alpha: forms damaging pores, causes septic shock
* beta: sphingomyelinase
* gamma: tissue necrosis
* delta: cytotoxic detergent (PVL-like)
Hemolysins
* disrupts PMNs and macrophages
* resistant to phagocytosis
PV Leukocidin
* hydrolyses H.A. - spreading factor
Hyaluronidase
* lyses formed fibrin
Staphylokinase
* facilitates colonization of sebaceous glands
Lipase
* food poisoning w/i 4 hours, lasts for 24 (NO fever)
* acts of brain vomit center
* inhibits GI water absorption
* superantigen
* strong inducer of IL-1
Enterotoxin A-E
A: most common
C&D: milk
B: can cause pseudo enterocolitis b/c damage epithelium of GI
* causes release of IL-1, IL-2
* superantigen
* fever, hypotension, rash, desquamation, multi-organ
TSST
* cause intraepidermal separation at stratum granulosom
* SSSS & bullous impetigo
* type A & B
* not assoc w/inflam, NO SA or neutrophils!
Exofoliatin
* defense: phagocytosis/opsons, difficult to kill b/c of capsule, biofilms, carotenoids, catalase
* MRSA on mecA gene (staphVax)
* vanc, cephalosporins, bacitracin
Staph aureus host defense & Tx
* G+, paired cocci, capsule w/sialic acid to inhibit complement
* beta hemolytic
* No exotoxins
* CAMP factor Positive (enhances BetaHem of Staph A)
* Beta hemolytic
* form biofilms
* vagina, vertical trans to fetus
Strept agalactiae (Group B, GBS)
Characteristics
* neonatal meningitis & septicemia
* neonatal pneumonia
* post-part endometiosis
*TX: PNC G, Vanc, Amp+aminogly for neonate
Strept agalactiae (GBS) Clinical & Tx
* similar to Strep A, but non rheumatogenic
Strept C & G
* G+, pairs or chains of cocci, aerobic, extracellular
* NO exotoxins
* dextran glycocalyx, LTA, glucans, other acids
* Alpha hemolytic
* oropharynx
Strept mutans (Viridians) Characteristics
* dental carries (bacteremia)
* sub-acute endocarditis (#1 cause)
* Tx: PNC G+Aminogly, Amox or Ampi, Vanc
Strep mutans clinical & Tx
* G+, extracellular, paired cocci or short chain
* virulence w/capsule (80 types of polysac)
* CAMP negative
* alpha (O2) & beta (no O2) hemolytic
* bile soluable
* Catalase NEGATIVE
* IgA Proteases, Adhesions, pneumolysins (destroys cilia), no exotoxins
* upper respiratory
Strep Pneumoniae Characteristics
* Lobar Pneumo (#1 cause)
* Meningitis (#1 cause)
* Sinusitis (#1 cause)
* Otitis media (#1 cause)
* Dx: quellung rxn (anticapsular reaction), optochin sensitive
* Tx: PCN G, Vanc, Ceftriaxone
* Vaccine for high risk people
Strep Pneumoniae Clinical & Tx
* G+, paired/chain cocci
* no exotoxins, no virulence factors
* bile growth, alpha hemolytic
* GI flora, only causes bacteremia when GI disruption puts in blood (enterococci)
* Associated with colon cancer
Strep bovis (Group D)
* G+, pairs or chains, non-motile, fac. anaerobe, no exotoxins
* Non-hemolytic, Catalase negative, fastidious
* salt, bile tolerant (hydrolyze bile esculin)
* adhesions, aggregation subs, gelatinase, cytolysin
* resist optochin
* enteric bacteria (LI, GU)
Enterococcus faecium & faecalis Characteristics
* bacteremia when enter blood
* nosocomial UTIs
* sub-acute endocarditis (via bacteremia)
* VRE strains exist
* Vanc or Amp+Aminogly, Streptogramin
Enterococcus fs Clinical 7 Tx
* G+, rods, SPORE forming
* Aerobic, D-glut capsule
* non hemolytic, sticky colonies
* 3 part exotoxin (EF, LF, PA) via virulence plasmids (pXO1 the lef-cya-pag gene, PXO2 the capsule)
* EF/PA= edema, LF/PA=lethal
* Primary aerosol.
* Tx: PCN, Cipro, Deoxy for 60 days (vaccine for some)
Bacillus Anthracis Characteristics
* inhalation of spores
* mediastinal widening
* replication in lung with exotoxin release
* fever, SOB, cough, HA, vomit, chills, chest pain, death w/i 3 days
Inhalation Anthrax
* most common
* painless papule at site of Infx
* Progress to ulcer with germination, rapid prolife
* necrotic eschar (round black lesion with rim of edema)
Cutaneous Anthrax
* very rare, often lethal
* ingestion of spores from contaminated meat
* growth & exotoxin release in GI, necrotic lesions
* vomiting, ab pain, bloody dia.
GI Anthrax
* white, pseudomembrane over tonsil, soft palate, uvula, will bleed
Orophary. Anthrax
* G+, motile (Flage), Spore forming rods
* no capsule
* exotox: cereolysin, necrotic toxin, lecithinase (phosph C)
Bacillus cereus Characteristics
* Emetic food poisoning (fried rice!)
* diarrhea food poisoning
* post-traumatic endophthalmitis (eye infx) when spores into eyes
* Tx: supportive care, Vanc, Cipro, genta
Bacillus cereus Clinical & TX
* G+, club shaped rods, non motile, extracellular, NON spore, Catalase +
* tellurite medium, methyl blue (storage granules)
* exotoxin: ADP ribosyltransferase toxin (B binds, A enzy: blocks EF2 and protein synth: most effective toxin known)
* NON invasive: colonize and when low iron release toxins
* three strains (gravis, inter, mitis)
* upper resp infx, skin lesions
Corynebacterium diptheriae Characteristics
* G+, small rods, chinese character clumps, motile (tumble), INTRAcelluar, Catalase +
* beta hemolytic, internalins, listerolysin O, actin-based motility, phopho c
* animals, foods
Listeria monocytogenes characteristics
* diptheria (mem form), cardio toxic, neuro toxic
* skin infections (tropics, poor hygen)
* Erythro, antitoxin, vaccine (DPT)
Corynebacterium diptheriae Clinical & TX
* G+, motile (Flage), Spore forming rods
* no capsule
* exotox: cereolysin, necrotic toxin, lecithinase (phosph C)
Bacillus cereus Characteristics
* Emetic food poisoning (fried rice!)
* diarrhea food poisoning
* post-traumatic endophthalmitis (eye infx) when spores into eyes
* Tx: supportive care, Vanc, Cipro, genta
Bacillus cereus Clinical & TX
* G+, club shaped rods, non motile, extracellular, NON spore, Catalase +
* tellurite medium, methyl blue (storage granules)
* exotoxin: ADP ribosyltransferase toxin (B binds, A enzy: blocks EF2 and protein synth: most effective toxin known)
* NON invasive: colonize and when low iron release toxins
* three strains (gravis, inter, mitis)
* upper resp infx, skin lesions
Corynebacterium diptheriae Characteristics
* G+, small rods, chinese character clumps, motile (tumble), INTRAcelluar, Catalase +
* beta hemolytic, internalins, listerolysin O, actin-based motility, phopho c
* animals, foods
Listeria monocytogenes characteristics
* diptheria (mem form), cardio toxic, neuro toxic
* skin infections (tropics, poor hygen)
* Erythro, antitoxin, vaccine (DPT)
Corynebacterium diptheriae Clinical & TX
* ONLY thing that can cross placenta - abortions (bacteremia), neonatal meningitis (late onset), granulomatosis infantiseptica (early onset)
* preg women 20 times more susceptible (CD 8 cells are down)
* Infects immunocompromised people (meningitis)
* Listerosis (from foods)
* Tx: PCN, Amp, Genta
Listeria monocytogenes Clinical & Tx
* G+, rods, need lipids for growth
* indigenous flora, become infective in immunocomp pts
* septicemia, endocarditis, UTIs, wound infx, RespI
Corynebacterium jeikeium