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46 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Breaker
Sea surface water wave has become too steep to be stable and collapses
Capillary Wave
Wave with wavelength less than 1.5 cm in which the primary restoring force is surface tension
Centrifugal Force
outward-directed force acting on a body moving along a curved path or rotating about an axis; an internal force
Centripetal force
inward-directed force necessary to keep an object moving in a curved oath or rotating about an axis
Deep-water wave
wave in water; the depth of which is greater than one-half the wavelength
diffraction
process that transmits energy laterally along a wave crest
dispersion (sorting)
sorting of waves as they move out from a storm center; occurs because long-period waves travel faster in deep water than short period waves
diurnal tide (declinational tide)
tide with one high water and one low water each tidal day
dynamic equilibrium
state in which the sums of all changes are balanced and there is no net change
episodic wave
abnormally high wave unrelated to local storm conditions
equilibrium tide
theoretical tide formed by the tide-producing forces of the moon and sun on a nonrotating, water-covered earth
fetch
continuous area of water over which the wind blows in essentially a constant direction
forced wave
wave generated by a continuously acting force and caused to move at a speed faster than it freely travels
free wave
wave that continues to move at its natural speed after its generation by a force
generating force
disturbing force that creates a wave, such as wind or a landslide entering water
gravity wave
water wave form in which gravity acts as the restoring force; a wave with wavelength greater than 2 cm
group speed
speed at which a group of waves travels (in deep water, group speed equals one-half the speed of an individual wave); the speed at which the wave energy is propagated
internal wave
wave created below the sea surface at the boundary between two density layers
mixed tide
type of tide in which large inequalities between the two high waters and two low waters occur in a tidal day
moon tide
portion of the tide generated solely by the moon's tide-raising force, as distinguished from that of the sun
neap tides
tides occurring near the times of the first and last quarters of the moon, when them range of the tide is least
progressive wind wave
wave that moves, or progresses, in a certain direction
restoring force
force that returns a disturbed water surface to the equilibrium level, such as surface tension and gravity
rip current
strong surface current flowing seaward from shore; the return movement of water piled up on the shore by incoming waves and wind
semi-diurnal tide
tide with two high waters and two low waters each tidal day
shallow water wave
wave in water whose depth is less than one twentieth the average wavelength
slack water
state of tidal current when its velocity is near zero; occurs when the tidal current changes direction
spring tides
tides occurring near the times of the new and full moon, when the range of the tide is greatest
standing wave
type of wave in which the surface of the water oscillates vertically between fixed points called nodes, without progression; the points of maximum vertical rise and fall called antinodes
storm center
area of origin for surface waves generated by the wind; an intense atmospheric low-pressure system
sun tide
portion of the tide generated solely by the sun's tide-raising force, as distinguished from that of the moon
swell
long and relatively uniform wind-generated ocean waves that have traveled out of their generating area
tidal bore
high-tide crest that advances rapidly up an estuary or river as a breaking wave
tidal current
alternating horizontal movement of water associated with the rise and fall of the tide
tidal datum
reference level from which ocean depths and tide heights are measured; the zero tide level
tidal day
time interval between two successive passes of the moon over a meridian, approximately twenty-four house and fifty minutes
tide wave
long-period gravity wave that has ts origin in the tide-producing force and is observed as the rise and fall of the tide
tsunami (seismic sea wave)
long-period sea wave produced by a submarine earthquake, volcanic eruption, sediment slide, or seafloor faulting. It may travel across the ocean for thousands of miles unnoticed from its point of origin and build up to great heights over shallow water at the shore
wave crest
highest part of a wave
wave height
vertical distance between a wave crest and the adjacent trough
wave length
horizontal distance between two successive wave crests or two successive wave troughs
wave period
time required for two successive wave crests or troughs to pass a fixed point
wave ray
line indicating the direction waves travel; drawn at right angles to the wave crests
wave steepness
ratio of wave height to wavelength
wave train
series of similar waves from the same direction
wave trough
lowest part of the wave