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27 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What does technological change do?
-fuels growth of new brands
-sustains growth of corporations
-creates new growth markets
-propels small outsiders into market leaders
First generation new product development in the 1950's
Tech Push If we build it they will want it
New product development 1960s to early 1970s second generation
market need model If they want it we can build it
1970s - 1980s third generation new product development
innovation coupling
the coupling model focused on what 2 levels of activity
-project execution factors
-corporate level factors excercised via decision gates
fourth generation new product development 80s to 90s
integrated innovation
new product development 90s forward
inherent conflict - speed vs. quality - good fast cheap pick two to exploit
Porter's value chain primary activities
inbound logistics
outbound logistics
marketing and sales
porters value chain support activities
firm infrastructure
human resource management
technology development
Five forces in biotechnology
easy entry
intense rivalry
strong buyers
high substitues
strong suppliers
theory of s curves for technology
flat intro, rapid growth, flat maturity
how do technologies compete
function, reliability, convenience, price
pace of technological change increasing or decreasing
origin of new technology
small outsiders or large incumbents
What are the theories for pioneer advantage - consumer based advantages?
brand loyalty
learning theory
What are the theories for pioneer advantage - producer based advantages?
economies of scale
experience curves
technological leadership
resource mobilization
What are the theories against pioneer advantage?
free riders
shifts in technology
shifts in consumer trends
incumbent inertia
improper positioning
changing resource requirements
insufficient investments
How do you innovate in consumer markets
integrated solutions
move downstream
redefine buyer
reengineer consumer process
from professional to DIY
support and service installed base
How to promote cooperation
enlarge the shadow of the future
change the payoffs
teach people to care about each other
teach reciprocity
improve the ability to recognize the other player from past interactions
how do you fight a price war with non-price or price tactics?
non-price: reveal your cost advantage, focus on quality, alert customers to risk
price: modify only certain prices, introduce a fighting brand, use complex prices
you only go after market share if . . .
its a high growth market
you have a break-through innovation
you have an acquisition that can easily be expanded
the competition is unwilling to fight back
the competition is unable to fight back
how do you expand the total market for frequency of use?
provide reminder communications
position for frequent use
position for regular use
make usage easier or more convenient
provide incentives
reduce undesirable consequences of frequent use
how do you expand the total market for quantity used?
provide reminder communications
provide incentives
effect usage norms
reduce undesirable consequences of heavy consumption
How do you expand the total market to innovate new uses?
new applications for existing users
find out how customers use a brand
applications of competing products
discover totally new applications
3 steps to defining a challenger or follower strategy
define appropriate competitor
choose competitor to challenge
define objective
choose attack strategy
what are the attack strategies
frontal attack
flank attack
encirclement attack
bypass attack
guerilla attack
if you are in the maturity stage what strategies should you follow
price discounts
improved services
intensive ad promotion
cost reduction manufacturing
distribution innovation
prestige goods
cheaper goods
product innovativeness