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49 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
1. What ideas from the Enlightenment helped form the basis of U.S. government?

2. Was the American Revolution the only independence movement that resulted from the Enlightenment?

1. - The idea of natural, inalienable rights (for example, life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness)
-Rebellion is justified if the ruler no longer has the consent of the people.

2. No. The French Revolution and revolutions in Latin America also were based on these same ideas
1. Democracy
2. Parliamentary democracy
3. Presidential democracy

1. Democracy is a system of government in which the people rule, directly or through elected representatives.
2. Parliamentary democracy is a system of government in which executive and legislative functions are carried out through an elected group of representatives.
3. Presidential democracy is a system of government in which an elected individual oversees executive functions; legislative functions are carried out through an elected group or representatives.
The Industrial Revolution
1. What was the Industrial Revolution?
2. What caused it?
3. How did it affect the lives of the people involved?

1. The Industrial Revolution was the change from a traditional, agricultural economy to an industrial economy.
2. Discoveries is science and improvements in technology led to the Industrial Revolution. New inventions made production faster and less expensive.
3. Some effects: Many people moved to cities to work in factories (urbanization). Overall, the standard of living improved and the population grew. The price of goods fell while production and pollution increased. Workers had repetitive, sometimes dangerous jobs. Unions developed to address workers’ problems.
1. Why did unions develop?
2. What obstacles did early union organizers face?
3. Match each union with its accomplishments:

Knights of labor A. organized farm workers:
Began in 1966
AFL/CIO B. The first national union
UFW C. National industrial union, long
History, many current members
1. Unions developed to help workers seek safer workplaces, better working conditions, and higher wages.
2. Employers threatened and fired organizers and any worker who joined a union. Violence was sometimes used to control workers, especially during strikes. The laws and the courts supported management, and many people in the U.S. did not support the idea of unions.
3. Knights of Labor –B
UFW (United Farm Workers)-A
. What are the four factors of production?
2. How might each change below affect production and price of orange juice?

A) An unusually large orange crop
B) A two-day freeze in Florida
C) A machine that squeezes the oranges twice as fast
as previously possible
D) A shortage of workers
1. Land, labor, capital, entrepreneurship
A) Increased availability would stimulate production and lower the price
B) Cold weather would reduce the crop, slow production and cause the price to rise.
C) Such a machine would speed production and lower prices slightly.
D) A labor shortage would hamper production and cause prices to go up.
For hundreds of years immigrants have been arriving in the U.S. Each group of immigrants changes the U.S. and is changed by life in the U.S.
How is each factor below affected by immigration?
1. Housing
2. Voting
3. Education
4. Language
5. Labor practices
6. Religion
1. Housing shortages may result. Large groups may be housed in crowded and unsanitary conditions. Housing styles may change as immigrants build houses that resemble those of their homeland.
2. Large ethnic groups create new voting blocs. Politicians may seek to influence these groups and change the focus of their campaign.
3. Schools may be ill-equipped to meet the needs of new immigrants with other languages and cultures. Schools are enriched by a variety of new ideas.
4. The English language expands, as some words of foods, objects, or ideas from the immigrants’ languages become a part of English.
5. New immigrants may be willing to work in jobs traditionally unattractive to long-time citizens and to work for lower wages. Highly skilled immigrants seeking opportunity bring advanced skills to the economy. Long time citizens may resent immigrants employment or appreciate immigrants’ skills.
6. Differences in religion may cause tension with current citizens. Religious institutions change and expand to accommodate new beliefs.
What are some of the reasons that people migrate from one region to another?

-to seek greater economic opportunity
-to avoid religious or political persecution
-to escape from a war in their own country
The Spanish-American War
1. What caused the war?
2. What were the results of the war?

Causes of the Spanish-American War
- The U.S. sought to expand its economic position and influence outside its borders. One area of interest was Cuba, a colony that was seeking independence from Spain.
- Many Americans were outraged by Spain’s harsh control of the rebellious Cuban people.
- The sinking of the U.S.S. Maine in 1898 prompted the U.S. to declare war.
Results of the war
- Cuba gained its independence; the U.S. was able to gain the favorable trade relationship it sought with Cuban businesses.
- The U.S. acquired Puerto Rico, the Philippines and Guam.
1. What is progressivism?
2. Explain the progressive position on each issue:
-antitrust legislation
-urban life
-public schools
-child labor

1. Progressivism is a political philosophy developed in the 1890’s that represented the interest of the people over the interest of big business.
- Progressives favored anti-trust legislation.
- They envisioned urban life that included a clean, safe environment with jobs, fair wages and services for city dwellers.
- Progressives supported the conservation movement.
- They supported the idea of a free public education for all and close regulation of child labor.
Define populism.

Populism: an alliance among farmers that sought to bring government ownership and control of banking, railroads, telephones, telegraph systems, as well as government operated warehouses for crops storage. Populists favored the graduated income tax over property tax.
1. What is imperialism?
2. What is a colony?
3. What is the result of imperialism?

1. Imperialism is a policy used by strong nations to control and profit from weaker nations. The strong country exerts political and economic control over the weaker nation so that the strong country benefits.
2. The nations or territory that is dominated by a strong nation is a colony.
3. The strong nation prospers as it is enriched by the resources of the colony. The colony may lose its culture or language as a result of changes made by the strong nation. While some individuals in the colony prosper, most citizens soon resent the domination of their country and attempt to damage or end the relationship with the stronger nation (for instance, India and United Kingdom). The colony may also be assimilated into the strong nation and become a part of that country (for instance, Hawaii and the U.S.).
World War I
1. In which decade was World War I fought?
a) 1910’s b)1920’s c) 1930’s d) 1940’s
2. Explain each cause of World War I.
- nationalism
-system of alliances
1. A- WWI was fought from 1914-1918
2. Nationalism- extreme national pride led to plans for expansion and a willingness to fight.
Imperialism- Western nations competed for the power and wealth that the colonies in Asia and Africa brought to them. This competition led to anger, jealousy, and grudges among the Western nations.
Militarism- Nations armed themselves, making an armed conflict quicker to start with more lethal results.
System of alliances- Nations signed mutual defense agreements with some of their neighbors; when one member of the alliance fought, they all fought.
World War I
1. WWI was fought from 1914-1918. When did the U.S. enter the war?
2. Soldiers dug trenches in WWI and stayed there for many months. What caused the deaths of millions of men in the trenches?
3. Explain each result of World War I:
-The League of Nations -Depression
-Disarmament -Rise of dictators
-Rebellion in the colonies
1. The U.S. entered the war in 1917.
2. A new weapon, the machine gun, made it deadly to climb out of a trench. Disease killed many in the trenches. Poison gas was used on men in the trenches, and the airplane was used to find the position of the enemy.
3. League of Nations- An international organization was formed to allow nations to discuss problems and prevent war; the U.S. did not join.
Depression- A worldwide depression started in the decade after the end of the war.
Disarmament- Losing nations were forced to disarm; they resented it and defied the order.
Dictators- After the war and during the depression strong leaders (ex.-Adolph Hitler) gained power in many nations.
Rebellion in the colonies- Colonists want freedom
The Russian Revolution
1. What was it?
2. When did it end?
3. How did the revolution impact World War I?

1. The Russian Revolution was the Communist takeover of the government in Russia.
2. The Communists killed the czar (king) in 1917 and assumed control of the country.
3. Russia withdrew from the fighting of World War I. Its allies were weakened by the withdrawal of men and supplies, but the U.S. joined these nations in the fighting, and the war ended 18 months later.
1. Monarchy
2. Constitutional monarchy
3. Absolute monarchy

1. Monarchy is a system of government in which the ruler is determined by birth; the ruler remains in office for life.
2. Constitutional monarchy is a system of government in which powers of the monarch are limited to those permitted under the laws of the nation.
3. Absolute monarchy is a system of government in which one hereditary ruler controls all governmental powers.
1. Define theocracy
2. What principles of U.S. government prevent a theocracy in this nation?

1. Theocracy is a system of government headed by a religious leader who leads the citizens according to the beliefs of one religion.
2. One basis of the U.S. government is separation of church and state. The religious freedom guaranteed to citizens in the First Amendment also prevents a theocracy in the U.S. Tolerance of a variety of religions is a key characteristic of the U.S.
1. Define Dictatorship
2. Compare and contrast a dictator and an absolute monarch.

1. Dictatorship- a system of government in which one strong ruler controls all governmental powers; dictators often gain control following military victories.
2. Dictators and absolute monarchs both exercise total control over their nations. Dictators take control by force while absolute monarchs take power when they replace a parent or other family member as ruler.
Define and give an example of each:
1. Traditional economy
2. Market economy

1. A traditional economy answers basic economic questions according to cultural beliefs, tradition and customs. The feudal system of Western Europe was an example of a traditional economy.
2. In a market economy private individuals start businesses in search of profit. Competition among businesses results in a wide variety of available products for consumers. Supply and demand drive the economy, with minimal governmental interference. The U.S. and Japan are examples of a market economy. This system is also called capitalism.
Define and give an example of each:
1. Command economy
2. Mixed economy

1. A command economy is an economy in which the government makes the decisions about production, distribution, and exchange. Competition does not exist among businesses, and consumer choice is confined to the products made available by the government. North Korea, Cuba, and China would be examples of a command economy. The system is also called socialism.
2. A mixed economy contains aspects of both market economy and command economy. China and the U.S. are both mixed economies, but the U.S. leans much more toward market economy while China retains many features of a command economy.
1. Who can open a business in the U.S.?
2. What is the term for a person who starts a business?
3. What is the purpose of business?
4. How does a business decide what goods or service to produce? How does this affect the availability of choices for consumers?
5. What is the name of this system?
1. Anyone with the desire who has the necessary expertise and capital (money) can open a business.
2. Entrepreneur
3. Business owners predict what consumers will buy and at what price. They will produce that product if they can make a profit on it. Consumers will be able to choose from many products.
4. This system is the basis of a market economy (capitalism)
Would each factor below increase or decrease trade between nations?
1. A tariff (tax) on trade
2. Adopting policies that protect U.S. industries by limiting or taxing trade from other nations
3. Specialization of products by each manufacturer

1. Decrease trade
2. Decrease trade
3. Increase trade
The U.S. government regulates and contributes to the economy. What is the impact on the economy and the lives of citizens of each action below?
1. Building highways
2. Giving tax breaks to companies to develop alternative fuels.

1. Building highways creates jobs, promotes commerce by allowing products to be moved quickly by truck, as well as allows people to live greater distances from their work. It also increases the amount of pollution and can lead to the migration of people out of urban areas, thereby increasing the population and tax base of the suburbs, while at the same time decreasing the population and tax base of the urban areas.
2. Giving tax breaks to companies to develop alternative fuels could lead to the development of cleaner and cheaper fuels, thereby helping people spend less money and protect the environment. But it takes tax dollars away from other projects and potentially harms companies that supply energy in other ways.
Women’s Rights in the Twentieth Century
1. How did the 19th Amendment affect women?
2. What economic and legal issues were stressed by women in the second half of the 20th century?
3. What was the role of NOW and similar organizations?

1. The 19th amendment (1920) gave women the right to vote.
2. Women stressed equal pay for equal work and worked to end laws that restricted property rights for women. The right to control family size through birth control and abortion was a controversial issue for much of the century.
3. NOW (National Organization for Women) and similar organizations allowed women to work together to achieve common goals.
1. Identify each term from the 1930’s:
a) Great Depression
b) Dust Bowl
c) New Deal
2. How did the New Deal change the relationship between government and business?

1. a) A worldwide economic crisis, 1929-1940; the stock market crashed, banks failed, millions were out of work.
b) A drought and overfarming caused a large area of the central U.S. to turn to dust. Many residents fled to the West, Especially California.
c) The New Deal was President Roosevelt’s plan for relief, recovery, and reform during the Great Depression. Relief helped the poor, recovery got the economy going again, and reform changed the economy to prevent another depression.

2. For the first time the U.S. government became involved in many aspects of business by regulating business activities.
World War II
1. In which decade was most of World War II fought?
A) 1910’s B) 1920’s C) 1930’s D) 1940’s

2. Explain each cause of World War II:
1. D- World War II was fought from 1939 to 1945
2. Aggression/Expansion- Both Germany and Japan sought to take control of other countries by force and intimidation.
Appeasement- Britain chose to give in to (appease) Hitler’s conquest of Czechoslovakia and Austria
Revenge- Germany sought revenge against the Allies for the harsh terms of surrender after WWI.
World War II

1. What event prompted the U.S. to enter World War II? What was the date?

2. What were the results of World War II?

1. The Japanese attack on the American naval base at Pearl Harbor in Hawaii on December 7, 1941 prompted the U.S. to enter World War II.
2. The results of World War II:
-Approximately 55 million people were killed.
-European nations and Japan sustained millions of dollars in damage.
-Germany and Japan were defeated and placed under Allied control.
-The U.S. rebuilt Germany and Europe with the Marshall Plan and also rebuilt Japan under the leadership of General Douglas MacArthur.
-The United Nations was formed to prevent future wars and aggression.
-The state of Israel was formed as a homeland for Jews.
1. Define genocide.
2. Give an example of genocide.

1. Genocide is the systematic and planned extermination of an entire national, racial, political, or ethnic group.

2. One example of genocide is Hitler’s attempt to exterminate the Jews during World War II.
1. Define propaganda.
2. How did Senator Joseph McCarthy use propaganda techniques during the Red Scare?

1. Propaganda is information that is spread to support a cause. It creates an emotional connection between the message and the reader or listener.
2. Senator Joseph McCarthy called people Communists. He inflamed existing fears with half-truths and accusations. He urged everyone to join him in finding Communists. His name calling, card stacking, and bandwagon techniques led to ruined lives and mistrust in the U.S. in the 1950’s. Some people were even blacklisted; that is, they were not hired to work because they were accused of being Communists.
Identify the decade and the objective of each war:

1. The Korean War
2. The Vietnam War

1. The Korean War was fought in the 1950’s by the United States to contain Communism.
2. The Vietnam War was fought in the 1960’s and 1970’s by the United States to contain Communism
1. What was the Cold War?
2. When did it occur?

1. The Cold War was a time of political tension and military rivalry between the U.S. and the Soviet Union following World War II.
2. 1945-1989
What has been the role of the U.S. in world affairs since the Cold War ended in 1989?

The United States has emerged from the Cold War as the world’s only superpower. The U.S. has taken action in such crises as the Gulf War, the war in Bosnia, various peacekeeping missions, and the war against terrorism in Afghanistan and Iraq.
Civil Rights (1900-1950)
1. Jim Crow laws
2. Discrimination
3. Plessy v. Ferguson

1. Jim Crow laws- laws which segregated (separated) the races in the South and were designed to give minorities second-class status.
2. Discrimination- Unfair treatment of a person or group based on prejudice.
3. Plessy v. Ferguson- Supreme Court decision (1896) which ruled that separate accommodations for African-Americans were legal if they were equal.
4. NAACP- National Association for the Advancement of Colored People, formed by W.E.B. DuBois and other African-
American leaders to fight racial discrimination.
Civil Rights (1950-2000)
1. Brown v. Board of Education
2. Civil rights movement of the 50’s and 60’s
3. 26th Amendment
4. AIM
5. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke

1. Supreme Court decision (1954) which overturned Plessy v. Ferguson (1896) and stated that separate educational facilities were inherently (by nature) unequal.
2. The movement for equal rights and nondiscrimination was characterized by peaceful resistance, civil disobedience and orderly demonstrations (e.g. Martin Luther King Jr.) and also by black power advocates who sought change through violent means.
3. Lowered the voting age from 21 to 18.
4. American Indian Movement (AIM) is an organization that seeks to improve life for Native Americans through enforcement of treaties and community projects.
5. Supreme Court decision (1978) that prohibited colleges from setting quotas for minority admission but allowed race to be one factor in admissions decisions.
Which trend more accurately describes the 20th century?
1. Voting rights more fewer
For U.S. citizens rights rights
2. Rural residents more rural fewer rural
Residents residents
3. Overall more less
Prosperity prosperity prosperity
4. Use of more less
Technology technology technology

1. more voting rights
2. fewer rural residents
3. more prosperity
4. more technology
Describe these changes in voting rights in the U.S. (20th century)
1. 19th Amendment
2. 24th Amendment
3. 26th Amendment
4. Voting Rights Act of 1965

1. Voting rights extended to women
2. Poll taxes eliminated
3. Voting age lowered from 21 to 18
4. The Voting Rights Act of 1965 forbade literacy tests and allowed federal intervention in areas where voting rights had been denied.
Define globalization

Globalization refers to the fact that the economies of all of the nations of the world are increasingly interconnected. Companies can go anywhere in the world to find materials and labor to build products, and they can sell their products worldwide. National economies tend to rise and fall together because they are connected. Advances in technology, especially communication and transportation, have led to globalization.
1. Define urbanization
2. Explain how urbanization impacts economic development, population growth, and environmental change.

1. The transition from a rural society to a predominantly urban (city) society
2. Urbanization results in large population centers with high concentrations of business and industry. The operation of industries widens the job market but may also result in environmental damage to the air and water from discharge of pollutants. Crowded living conditions and transportation problems may also affect the quality of life of urban dwellers. Despite problems, the cultural amenities and excitement of the city attract many people.
1. What are the effects of improved communication and transportation? Consider how airplanes and email have affected your life and the lives of people you know.
2. How have these changes impacted the globalization of business, the availability of products, the flow of information around the world, and security?
1. Improved communication and transportation in effect have made the world smaller. Travelers can reach distant points quickly, and email allows people to keep in touch no matter where they are.
2. Globalization- Companies can sell products and hire workers all over the world.
Product availability- Products reach markets faster and easier, so we see sushi bars in Wisconsin and Harley Davidson motorcycles in Japan.
Flow of information around the world- The internet and T.V. allow millions of people to see world events. It is increasingly difficult for governments to control the flow of information to their citizens.
Security- As people and information move freely about the world, security and privacy face serious new challenges.
Explain these methods of restricting the rights of citizens. Include information about when they may and may not be used.
1. Clear and present danger
2. National security
3. Libel and slander
4. Public safety

1. The government may stop actions that pose a danger to others if that danger is clear and immediate. A vague threat or a threat about something that will happen in 10 years does not create a clear and present danger.
2. The government may restrict information or activities that threaten the nation. President Nixon abused this authority when he refused to release tapes of his dishonorable activities to Congress and claimed that national security would be threatened by their release.
3. Lying about information in print (libel) or in speech (slander) is illegal. Telling the truth, even if it is unpleasant, is not slander or libel.
4. Keeping a dangerous animal in your yard or driving 100 miles an hour poses a threat to others and is prohibited. Behavior that may be unusual but not harmful to others is legal.
1. Define precedent.
2. Why would Brown v. Board of Education (1954) be considered a precedent-setting case?

1. Precedent: an act or decision that sets an example for others to follow in similar circumstances.
2. Brown v. Board of Education is a precedent-setting case because is changed the government’s tolerance for segregation. This case ended the policy of separate but equal, as established in the Plessy v. Ferguson case of 1896. Instead the Brown ruling stated that separate facilities are inherently unequal and unconstitutional. All laws and court rulings since 1954 follow the example set in Brown v. Board of Education.
Define due process

Due process is a constitutional right of U.S. citizens. Each citizen is entitled to go through the steps of the judicial process when accused of a crime. For example, everyone has the right to trial by jury, to be informed of charges against him/herself, and to be represented by an attorney.
1. Define civil disobedience. Give examples of civil disobedience tactics.

2. When has civil disobedience been used in U.S. history?

1. Civil disobedience is nonviolent protest against unjust policies or law. Sit-ins, protest marches, and refusal to obey orders that protestors consider unjust are all forms of civil disobedience.
2. Civil disobedience has been used during the women’s movement to gain the vote in the late 1800’s, during the civil rights movement, and during protests against the Vietnam War.
The state would like to build a dam over a river. The dam will flood the land behind it to create a lake and provide flood protection to the land in front of it.
1. How might each person below react to the dam?
a) A family that owns a farm that will be flooded
b) The owner of the construction company that will
build the dam
c) The mayor of the town that will be flooded
d) The mayor of the town that will receive flood
2. Is the dam beneficial or harmful? 47
a) A family that owns a farm is likely to be sad to lose the family farm and to change their way of life. They may also be happy to sell their farm at a good price.
b) The owner of the construction company will seek to make a profit by building the dam. This project will be good news for owners and workers.
c) The mayor of the town to be flooded may react to the dam project by trying to prevent the construction and save the town.
d) The mayor of the town to receive the benefit of flood protection may be quite pleased and view the situation as an economic opportunity for the town. New residents from the flooded areas or tourism from visitors to the lake may enhance the community.
2. The answer depends on your point of view.
1. What is the Federal Reserve System?
2. Why is it important?

1. The Federal Reserve System is the federal/central banking system in the U.S.
2. It controls the flow of currency and establishes interest rate structure. The cost of car loans is one example of a decision affected by actions of the Federal Reserve. The decisions made at “The Fed” have a great impact on the well being of the U.S. economy.
1. What does laissez-faire mean?

2. Which are examples of laissez-faire economic policies?
a) removing government-imposed price controls from airlines
b) setting minimum wages
c) allowing companies to pollute the air or water as a by-product of production

1. Laissez-faire economic policies allow business owners in market economies to run their business according to market forces (supply and demand). Their freedom to make business decisions is not restricted by the government.
2. A and C are examples of laissez-faire policies.
____________________________________________________________________________________ __________________________________|_C__|_____________|______E_________|________________
1890 1900 1910 1920 1930 1940 1950

Match these events to the timeline:
1. World War II 4. World War I
2. Great Depression 5. Spanish-American War
3. Plessy v. Ferguson 6. Russian Revolution ends
with Communist takeover
of government.
1. World War II- F (1939-1945)
2. Great Depression – E (1929-1940)
3. Plessy v. Ferguson- A (1896)
4. World War I- C (1914-1918)
5. Spanish-American War- B (1898)
6. Russian Revolution ends with Communist takeover of government- D (1917)
| A | | C | | | F | |
1930 1940 1950 1960 1970 1980 1990
| E |

Match these events to the timeline:
1. Vietnam War (U.S. involvement) 2. United Nations founded
3. Cold War 4. Korean War
5. World War II 6. Brown v. Board of Ed.
7. Regents of the University of
California v. Bakke
1. Vietnam War (U.S. involvement)- F (1964-1973)
2. United Nations founded- B (1945)
3. Cold War – E (1945-1989)
4. Korean War- C (1950-1953)
5. World War II- A (1939-1945)
6. Brown v. Board of Education- D (1954)
7. Regents of the University of California v. Bakke- G (1978)
1. What is a source (of information)?
2. What is a reliable source? Give an example.
3. What is a credible source? Give an example.

1. A source is a document, organization, or person that supplies information.
2. A reliable source is dependable and has a reputation for accuracy. The source is trustworthy. For instance, a report by a major university is a reliable source of information.
3. A credible source is reasonable. The information it provides matches other information about the same topic and it is believable. For instance, an eyewitness account of a auto accident that is supported by the physical evidence on the scene is a credible source.
1. What is a primary source?
2. What is a secondary source?

1. Primary source- A document, record, or written account created by a person who took part in or witnessed an event. For example, George Washington’s diary is a primary source for the American Revolution.
2. Secondary source- A written account created by a person who was not a participant or eyewitness at an event written some time after the event occurred. For example, a history textbook is a secondary source.