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288 Cards in this Set

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Scandal involving illegal activities that led ultimately to the resignation of President Nixon in 1974.
Watergate scandal
Social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and that sought to apply the gospel of Jesus directly to society.
social gospel movement
Organization formed to help farmers cooperate economically and politically; also known as the Patrons of Husbandry.
the Grange
A legal ban on the manufacture and sale of alcoholic beverages.
prohibition
Charge a public official with wrongdoing in office.
impeach
An organized campaign to eliminate alcohol consumption.
temperance movement
Complete control of a product or service.
monopoly
Crowded apartment building with poor standards of sanitation, safety, and comfort.
tenement
A force of United States Navy ships that undertook a world cruise in 1907.
Great White Fleet
Way of producing in which different tasks are performed by different persons
division of labor
Period of legislative activity launched by President Franklin Roosevelt in 1935.
Second New Deal
Government-funded project to build public facilities.
public works program
Variety show that featured acts such as comic sketches and song-and-dance routines.
Vaudeville
1896 case in which the Supreme Court ruled that racial segregation was legal as long as the separate facilities were equal for both races.
Plessy v. Ferguson
Ability to read and write.
literacy
A feeling of intense national pride and a desire for an aggressive foreign policy.
jingoism
Catalog advertising a wide range of goods that can be purchased by mail.
mail-order catalog
The total amount of money that the federal government has borrowed and has yet to pay back.
national debt
Person who gives donations to worthy causes.
philanthropist
Civil rights protest in which a racially mixed group of protesters challenged racially segregated bus terminals.
Freedom Ride
Tactic in which senators take the floor, begin talking, and refuse to stop talking to permit a vote on a measure.
filibuster
Program designed to ensure a basic standard of living for all citizens.
social welfare program
A German submarine.
U-boat
A fixed conception held by a number of people.
stereotype
Distributing goods to consumers in a fixed amount.
rationing
Corporation that hold stocks and bonds of numerous companies.
holding company
1958 bill to improve science and mathematics instruction in schools.
National Defense Education Act
One of the camps to which Japanese Americans were forcibly sent during World War II.
internment camp
Policy in which nations agree to protect one another against attack.
collective security
A country dominated politically and economically by another nation, especially by the Soviet Union during the cold war.
satellite nation
Organization opposed to the New Deal.
American Liberty League
Illegal seizure and execution of a person by a mob.
lynching
1964 congressional resolution authorizing President Johnson to take military action in Vietnam.
Gulf of Tonkin Resolution
Payment from an enemy for economic injury suffered during a war.
reparations
Federal program that provides medical benefits for older Americans.
Medicare
Belief in the separate identity and racial unity of the African American community.
black nationalism
Special war bonds sold to support the Allied cause during World War I.
Liberty Bond
A Japanese American whose parents were born in Japan.
Nisei
Segregation based not on law but on poverty and ghetto conditions.
de facto segregation
Law passed in 1972 that aimed to control pollution caused by the discharge of industrial and municipal wastewater.
Clean Water Act
Distribution of seats in a legislative body.
apportionment
Process by which citizens propose new laws by gathering signatures on a petition.
initiative
Program in which nations voluntarily give up their weapons.
disarmament
American policy of resisting further expansion around the world.
containment
Military alliance between the Soviet Union and nations of Eastern Europe, formed in 1955.
Warsaw Pact
System of laws that segregated public services by race, beginning in the 1890s.
Jim Crow
Law that outlawed discrimination in a number of areas, including voting, schools, and jobs.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Type of music that grew out of rhythm and blues and that became popular in the 1950s.
rock and roll
Agreement among homeowners not to sell real estate to certain groups of people, such as African Americans or Jews.
restrictive covenant
In the Senate, a three-fifths vote that permits the ending of debate on an issue.
cloture
Process by which voters remove a public official from office before the next election.
recall
1973 Supreme Court decision that legalized abortion.
Roe v. Wade
The readying of troops for war.
mobilization
A license to make, use, or sell an invention.
patent
House Un-American Activities Committee; congressional committee that investigated Communist influence in the United States in the 1940s and 1950s.
HUAC
Law that prohibits certain private activities, such as drinking alcoholic beverages on Sundays.
Blue Law
During prohibition, a supplier of illegal alcohol.
bootlegger
Area of economic and political control exerted by one nation over another nation or other nations.
sphere of influence
Self-government with respect to local matters.
autonomy
Highly flammable chemical used in firebombing attacks; dropped from U.S. planes during Vietnam War to burn away vegetation and expose Viet Cong hideouts.
napalm
Railway extending from coast to coast.
transcontinental railroad
Shelter for the homeless during the early years of the Great Depression.
Hooverville
Severe economic decline that lasted from 1929 until about 1939.
Great Depression
Relating to a city, as in municipal government.
municipal
An international conference in 1954 in which Vietnam was divided into two nations.
Geneva Conference
System in which workers are paid not by the hour but by what they produce.
piecework
Nonviolent refusal to obey a law in an effort to change the law.
Civil Disobedience
A contest between nations in which both expand their arms stockpiles in an effort to gain superiority.
arms race
New process, patented in 1856, for making steel more efficiently.
Bessemer process
In World War I, Russia, France, Great Britain, and later the United States.
Allies
Cease-fire or truce.
armistice
Payment made by the government to encourage the development of certain key industries.
subsidy
Group of people in the film industry who were jailed for refusing to answer congressional questions regarding Communist influence in Hollywood.
Hollywood Ten
Scandal involving illegal activities that led ultimately to the resignation of President Nixon in 1974.
Watergate Scandal
Store that carries a variety of goods and sells in large quantities.
department store
American policy of resisting further expansion around the world.
containment
Group of armed and unarmed ships deployed to protect merchant shipping from attack.
convoy
Phenomenon that as production increases, the cost of each item produced is often lower.
economies of scale
1925 trial in Tennessee on the issue of teaching evolution in public schools.
Scopes trial
List that is circulated among employers, containing names of persons who should not be hired.
blacklist
1952 immigration law that discriminated against potential immigrants from Asia and Southern and Central Europe.
McCarran-Walter Act
Monument in Washington, D.C., built to honor those killed in the Vietnam War.
Vietnam Veterans Memorial
Deliberate murder of an entire people.
genocide
Manufacture of goods in great amounts.
mass production
Scandal during the Harding administration involving the granting of oil drilling rights on government land in return for money.
Teapot Dome Scandal
Federal program organized to send volunteers to help people in poor communities.
Volunteers in Service to America (VISTA)
Name given to American troops in Europe in World War I.
American Expeditionary Force (AEF)
Restriction on trade.
embargo
Citizen who takes the law into his or her own hands.
vigilante
Tiny circuit device that amplifies, controls, and generates electrical signals.
transistor
System of pricing determined by the government.
price controls
Journalist who uncovers wrongdoing on the part of politicians or corporations.
muckraker
Segregation based on law.
de jure segregation
Rule that police must inform persons accused of a crime of their legal rights.
Miranda rule
Theory favoring the political, economic, and social equality of men and women.
feminism
Speech or actions that encourage rebellion.
sedition
A numeral limit.
quota
International organization, formed after World War I, that aimed to promote security and peace for all members.
League of Nations
Argument, made by Frederick Jackson Turner in 1893, that the frontier had shaped American life.
Turner thesis
1947 declaration by President Truman that the United States would support nations that were being threatened by communism.
Truman Doctrine
Ruler with unlimited power.
autocrat
Group of World War I veterans and their families who in 1932 protested in Washington, D.C., to receive their pensions early.
Bonus Army
1917 note by a German diplomat proposing an alliance with Mexico.
Zimmerman Note
Group of nations that worked together to regulate the price and supply of oil.
Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC)
Law passed in 1970 that aimed to control pollution caused by industrial and auto emissions.
Clean Air Act
Law that ended quotas for individual countries and replaced them with more flexible limits.
Immigration Act of 1965
Program of American economic assistance to Western Europe, announced in 1947.
Marshall Plan
Program of American economic assistance to Western Europe, announced in 1947.
Marshall Plan
Federal program that provides medical benefits to poor Americans.
Medicade
1954 case in which the Supreme Court outlawed racial segregation in public schools.
Brown v. Board of Education of Topeka, Kansas
Term sometimes used to describe mainstream Americans.
Middle America
The fear of communism and other extreme ideas.
Red Scare
The dropping of a large concentration of bombs over a certain area.
saturation bombing
A force of Communist guerrillas in South Vietnam who, with North Vietnamese support, fought against the South Vietnamese governments in the Vietnam War.
Viet Cong
Law passed in 1935 that aided unions by legalizing collective bargaining and establishing the National Labor Relations Board.
Wagner Act
Free delivery of packages to rural areas, begun in 1896.
rural free delivery
1919 treaty that ended World War I.
Versailles Treaty
Organization of African Americans formed in Georgia to promote civil rights.
Albany Movement
Tax in which the percentage of taxes owed increase with income.
progressive income tax
System by which cities exercise a limited amount of self-rule.
home rule
Conflict over the future of the Korean peninsula, fought between 1950 and 1953 and ending in a stalemate.
Korean War
Government spending of borrowed money.
deficit spending
In World War I, Germany and Austria-Hungary.
Central Powers
Passage that exempts a group of people from obeying a law if they met certain conditions before the law was passed.
grandfather clause
Election in which voters cast ballots to select nominees for upcoming elections.
direct primary
Special fee that must be paid before a person can vote.
poll tax
Latitude line that divided North and South Korea.
38th parallel
Belief that if one country fell to communism, neighboring countries would likewise fall.
domino theory
Official ideology of the Soviet Union, characterized there by complete government ownership of land and property, single-party control of the government, the lack of individual rights, and the call for worldwide revolution.
Communism
Loose association of businesses that make the same product.
cartel
Supply of West Berlin by American and British planes during a Soviet blockade in 1948-1949.
Berlin airlift
Law aimed at reducing barriers to African American voting, in part by increasing federal authority to register voters.
Voting Rights Act of 1965
Policy of avoiding political or economic alliances with foreign countries.
isolationism
Supporter of the Populist party, formed in 1892 to advocate a larger money supply and other economic reforms.
Populist
Making high-risk investments in hopes of getting a high gain.
speculation
An attorney appointed by the Justice Department to investigate wrongdoing by government officials.
special prosecutor
Organization, founded in 1905 by W.E.B. Du Bois and other black leaders, that called for full civil liberties for African Americans, an end to racial discrimination, and recognition of human brotherhood.
Niagara Movement
A feeling of intense national pride and a desire for an aggressive foreign policy.
jingoism
Term used to describe the period from 1877 to 1900.
Gilded Age
Process of bringing together many firms that are in the same business to form one large company.
horizontal consolidation
Someone who opposes war on moral or religious grounds.
conscientious objector
Agreement signed in 1928 in which nations agreed not to use war in their dealings with one another.
Kellog-Briand Pact
Alliance between the United States, Canada, and Western European nations, formed in 1949.
NATO
Type of newspaper coverage that emphasized sensational stories of crime and scandal.
yellow journalism
Person whose family origins are in Spanish-speaking Latin America.
Latino
Supply route that carried troops and supplies from North Vietnam to South Vietnam.
Ho Chi Minh Trail
Policy of risking war in order to protect national interests.
brinkmanship
1947 law that allowed the President to order striking workers in some industries back to work.
Taft-Hartley Act
Statistics that describe a population, such as data on race or income.
demographics
A government policy of not interfering in private business.
laissez-faire
Term coined during the 1920s to describe a young woman with a fondness for dancing and brash actions.
flapper
African American movement seeking unity and self-reliance.
black power
Law passed in 1914 to strengthen federal antitrust enforcement by spelling out business activities that were forbidden.
Clayton Antitrust Act
Amount that a worker produces in a given period of time.
productivity
Government study of United States involvement in the Vietnam War, made public in 1971.
Pentagon Papers
Term used by President Nixon to describe Americans who disapproved of the counterculture.
silent majority
Community center organized to provide various services to the urban poor.
settlement house
Period from 1890 to 1916, during which a variety of reforms were enacted at the local, state, and federal levels.
Progressive Era
Income.
revenue
In World War II, the alliance of Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and other nations.
Allies
Organization formed in 1968 to help Native Americans.
American Indian Movement (AIM)
Rewards.
spoils
1917 law authorizing a draft of young men for military service.
Selective Service Act
Expansion by stages, as from a limited or local conflict into a general, especially nuclear, war.
escalation
Negotiations between the United States and North Vietnam, beginning in 1968.
Paris peace talks
An alliance of groups with similar goals.
coalition
Person concerned with the care and protection of natural resources.
conservationist
1968 attack by Viet Cong and North Vietnamese forces throughout South Vietnam.
Tet Offensive
Manufacturing process in which each worker does one specialized task in the construction of the final product.
assembly line
Political philosophy that places the importance of the nation over that of the individual.
fascism
Organization formed in 1966 to promote full participation of women in American society.
National Organization for Women (NOW)
Protest in 1955-1956 by African Americans against racial segregation in the bus system of Montgomery, Alabama.
Montgomery bus boycott
Labor protest in which workers stop work but refuse to leave the workplace.
sit-down strike
An economy that depends on a large amount of buying by individuals.
consumer economy
Law passed in 1944 that helped returning veterans buy homes and pay for college.
GI Bill
Killing of several hundred Vietnamese by American soldiers in 1968.
My Lai massacre
Large corporation that owns many smaller companies producing a variety of goods and services.
conglomerate
Government organization formed in 1970 to deal with issues such as air and water pollution.
Environmental Protection Agency (EPA)
Dramatic increase in birthrate during and after World War II.
baby boom
Proposed constitutional amendment, never ratified, calling for equality of rights for both sexes.
Equal Rights Amendment (ERA)
Kind of warfare emphasizing rapid, mechanized movement.
blitzkrieg
In World War II, the alliance of Germany, Italy, and Japan.
Axis Powers
A system that lets customers make partial payments (installments) at set intervals over a period of time.
installment plan
Worker who moves from farm to farm planting and harvesting various crops.
migrant farm worker
1963 civil rights demonstration in Washington, D.C.
March on Washington
Barrier built by the East German government in 1961 to prevent East Germans from escaping to West Berlin.
Berlin Wall
In World War II, the alliance of Great Britain, the United States, the Soviet Union, and other nations.
Allies
Union organized by Cesar Chavez to organize Mexican field hands in the West.
United Farm Workers (UFW)
Radical who violently opposes all government.
anarchist
Worker called in by an employer to replace striking laborers.
scab
Style of music consisting of melodies with shifting accents over a steady beat.
ragtime
Turning clocks ahead one hour for the summer.
daylight savings time
Print and broadcast methods of communicating information to large numbers of people.
mass media
An intercontinental ballistic missile.
ICBM
Form of protest in which protesters do not resist or fight back when attacked.
nonviolent protest
Organization of Japanese Americans working to promote the rights of Asian Americans.
Japanese American Citizens League (JACL)
First artificial satellite to orbit Earth, launched by the Soviet Union in 1957.
Sputnik
A federal project to provide electric power, flood control, and recreational opportunities to the Tennessee River valley.
Tennessee Valley Authority (TVA)
Treaty, signed in 1963, in which the United States and the Soviet Union agreed not to test nuclear weapons above the ground.
Limited Test Ban Treaty
Student civil rights organization founded in 1960.
Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC)
Conversion to government ownership.
nationalization
Group of writers of the 1920s who shared the belief that they were lost in a greedy, materialistic world that lacked moral values.
Lost Generation
New political movement of the late 1960s that called for radical changes to fight poverty and racism.
New Left
Spanish-speaking neighborhood.
barrio
1878 law requiring the federal government to purchase and coin more silver.
Bland-Allison Act
Group of young Americans in the 1960s who rejected conventional customs.
counterculture
Set of religious beliefs including traditional Christian ideas about Jesus Christ, the belief that the Bible was inspired by God and does not contain contradictions or errors, and the belief that the Bible is literally true.
fundamentalism
Process by which people of one culture merge into and become part of another culture.
assimilation
During prohibition, a place where alcoholic drinks were served illegally.
speakeasy
Term used to describe the 1920s.
Jazz Age
Special session of lecture and discussion on a controversial topic.
teach-in
1941 law that authorized the President to provide aid to any nation whose defense he believed was vital to American security.
Lend-Lease Act
An especially high import tariff passed by Congress in 1930.
Hawley-Smoot Tariff
Failed invasion of Cuba by a group of anti-Castro forces in 1961.
Bay of Pigs invasion
1887 law that regulated railroads and other interstate businesses.
Interstate Commerce Act
The shooting down of an American spy plane over the Soviet Union in 1960.
U-2 incident
American approach to China around 1900, favoring open trade relations between China and other nations.
Open Door Policy
1962 crisis that arose between the United States and the Soviet Union over a Soviet attempt to deploy nuclear missiles in Cuba.
Cuban Missile Crisis
Government organization formed in 1974 to oversee the civilian uses of nuclear matters.
Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC)
Situation in which neither side in a conflict is able to gain the advantage.
stalemate
Rapid growth in number, spread.
proliferation
Settlement of a dispute by a person chosen to listen to both sides and come to a decision.
arbitration
Immoral or corrupt behavior.
vice
Collapse of the American stock market in 1929.
Great Crash
Law passed in 1890 that outlawed any combination of companies that restrained trade or commerce.
Sherman Antitrust Act
Pledge by the German government in 1916 that its submarines would warn ships before attacking.
Sussex Pledge
Forced separation.
segregation
October 29, 1929, the day on which the Great Crash of the stock market began.
Black Tuesday
Process in which workers negotiate as a group with employers.
collective bargaining
Law passed in 1882 that prohibited Chinese laborers from entering the country.
Chinese Exclusion Act
Publicly run system that provides regular payments to people who cannot support themselves.
Social Security system
Federal program established to send volunteers to help developing nations around the world.
Peace Corps
1886 labor-related violence in Chicago.
Haymarket Riot
Form of protest in which protesters seat themselves and refuse to move; sometimes used by civil rights demonstrators as a means of peaceful protest.
sit-in
A relaxation in political tensions between nations.
détente
1892 strike in Pennsylvania against Carnegie Steel.
Homestead Strike
Average measure of stock prices of major industries.
Dow Jones Industrial Average
1862 law in which the federal government distributed millions of acres of western lands to state governments in order to fund state agricultural colleges.
Morrill Land-Grant Act
Practice by which investors purchase a stock for only a fraction of its price, borrowing the rest.
buying on margin
Term used to describe a Central American nation dominated by United States business interests.
banana republic
1862 law that offered 160 acres of western land to settlers.
Homestead Act
Unofficial organization designed to keep a particular party or group in power and usually headed by a single, powerful boss.
political machine
System of non-elected government workers.
civil service
Between, among, or involving people of different races.
interracial
1877 Supreme Court decision that allowed states to regulate certain businesses within their borders.
Munn v. Illinois
Join or attach.
annex
Person who buys up large areas of land in the hope of later selling it for a profit.
land speculator
A set of wishes expressed to a candidate by the voters.
mandate
The state of hostility, without actual warfare, that existed between the United States and the Soviet Union after World War II until the collapse of the Soviet Union.
cold war
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds and could not be fired for political reasons.
Pendleton Civil Service Act
Process of bringing together of different races.
integration
Total annual value of goods and services that a country produces.
Gross National Product
A grant for a piece of land in exchange for a promise to use the land for a specific purpose
concession
Area that the federal government set aside for Native Americans who had lost their homelands.
reservation
One of a group of African Americans who migrated to the West following the Civil War.
Exoduster
A region in the Great Plains that had a period of drought and dust storms during the 1930s.
Dust Bowl
Sioux victory in 1876 over army troops under George Custer.
Battle of Little Bighorn
Constitutional amendment, ratified in 1933, that ended Prohibition.
Twenty-first Amendment
1890 shooting by army troops of a group of unarmed Sioux.
Massacre at Wounded Knee
A time of isolation to prevent the spread of disease.
quarantine
1887 law that divided Native American land into private family plots.
Dawes Act
Movement to ensure that native-born Americans received better treatment than immigrants.
nativism
Area in which one ethnic or racial group dominates.
ghetto
Organization founded in 1942 to promote racial equality through peaceful means.
Congress of Racial Equality (CORE)
One of the settlers who rushed into Indian Territory upon its opening for settlement in 1889.
boomer
Person who marked his or her claims in Indian Territory before it was legally opened to settlement.
sooner
Farm controlled by a large business and managed by professionals.
bonanza farm
Average income per person.
per capita income
Techniques used to raise crops in areas that receive little rain.
dry farming
Policy by a stronger nation to create an empire by dominating weaker nations economically, politically, culturally, or militarily.
imperialism
Name given by Native Americans to a black soldier in the United States Army who served in the West during the late 1880s and early 1900s.
buffalo soldier
Organization, also called the Black Muslims, dedicated to black separation and self-help.
Nation of Islam
A leader who manipulates people through such means as half-truths and scare tactics.
demagogue
An economic and political philosophy that favors public (or social) control of property and income.
socialism
A group of separate companies that are placed under the control of a single managing board.
trust
A non citizen.
alien
1969 musical festival in upstate New York.
Woodstock festival
Commission, headed by Chief Justice Earl Warren, that investigated the assassination of President Kennedy.
Warren Commission
Moving of cattle from distant ranges to busy railroad centers that shipped the cattle to market.
long drive
1907 agreement between the United States and Japan that restricted Japanese immigration.
Gentlemen's Agreement
A method of mining used by individual prospectors.
placer mining
Drop in the price of goods.
deflation
Residential community surrounding a city.
suburb
Required.
compulsory
In the 1950s, a person who criticized American society as apathetic and conformist.
beatnik
Court order prohibiting some action.
injunction
Civil rights organization formed in 957 by Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., and other leaders.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC)
(Strategic Arms Limitation Talks) 1972 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union on limiting nuclear weapons.
SALT I