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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
What is "Motor Learning"?
A set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to relatively permanent changes in the capability of movement.
What learning is NOT...
Inconsistent or transient
Dependent on cues
Requires feedback
What are the three phases of motor learning?
Cognitive
Associative
Automatic
What is the "Cognitive Stage" of learning?
Requires concentration, visual and verbal instruction, reliance on feedback, and usually results in rapid improvement.
What is the "Associative Stage" of learning?
Learner knows what to do, requires less effort, makes fewer errors, movement is more consistent but still requires proprioceptive or tactile cues, ready for a challenge.
What is the "Automatic Stage" of learning?
No need for cognitive processing, free of error, dual tasking, efficient movement patterns, self-analyzation and correction.
What is "Blocked Practice"?
Practicing one activity until the skill is mastered; good for performance, bad for retention.
What is "Random Practice"?
Practicing several discrete activities in random order; bad for performance, good for retention.
What is a "Continuous Task"?
Those that involve an activity of long duration containing cyclical movement of body parts; have no natural break; walking, riding a bike, running; "whole-task training"
What is a "Discrete Task"?
Those that have a definite and easily discernible starting and stoping point; standing up, washing hair, brushing teeth; "part-task training"
Closed Task
Supporting surfaces and task objects are stationary and do not vary; drinking from same cup, cooking with same utensils, standing from same chair.
Open Task
Unpredictable motion of supporting surfaces or task objects; playing a ball game, sitting in moving car.
Closed Environment
People and objects are stationary and little anticipation of movement is required; sitting in a classroom, using same bathroom, sleeping in your bed.
Open Environment
People and objects are unpredictable and there is anticipation of movement and timing of responses; walking in a crowd, using elevator, cooking with others, playing with children.
Intrinsic Feedback
Inherent to the action performed and is response produced.
Extrinsic Feedback
Given from an outside source; "augmented" feedback.
Knowledge of Results
Information given about the outcome of a movement; may be redundant.
Knowledge of Performance
Information given about the characteristics of a movement; used to perfect a skill or isolated task.
Continuous Feedback
Feedback given after every trial; good for performance, bad for learning; learning becomes dependent on the feedback.
Summary Feedback
Feedback withheld for a block of trials, and then given as a summary of success over that block; bad for performance, good for learning.
Bandwidth Feedback
Given only when the learner falls outside a predetermined margin of error; allows a "fading schedule" of feedback.
Metacognition
An awareness and monitoring of one's own cognitive state or condition; a self monitoring system; learner acts as a problem solver to achieve a goal and assess performance
What are the components of metacognition?
1. PLAN: Resource management and strategy use.
2. MONITOR: Self assessment.
3. EVALUATE: Judge the outcome and the process.