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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
which forces do not affect the motion of the whole body?
internal forces
what is a distraction force?
pull of one bony segment away from another
what is a compression force?
push of one bony segment toward another
What is a shear force?
pull or push perpendicular to distraction or compression forces
what is the primary non-contact force to consider?
weight always?
acts down toward the center of the earth
center of mass?
point where weight force can be considered to act on the body where all 3 planes intersect
what is normal force?
force pressing 2 surfaces together
what is the coefficient of friction?
types of surfaces in contact with each other
what is the friction force?
Fn * u
What is Newton's first law?
Law of Inertia
What is Newton's second law?
Law of Acceleration
What is Newton's third law?
Law of Action and reaction
Law of inertia states?
body in motion will tend to remain in motion; body at rest will remain at rest
law of inertia refers to a state where?
1. no external forces on an object
2. net external forces are zero
According to the law of acceleration the change of motion of an object is?
1. proportional to net external force
2. in direction of this force
Law of action-reaction states?
every action there is an equal and opposite reaction.

force that is exerted on one body by another, there is an equal and opposite force exerted by the second body on the first.
Newton's second law for linear and angular?
F = m * a
T = l * angular acceleration
influence on a body or system, producing or tending to produce a change in angular movement
objects fixed in space at a certain point will?
rotate about that point
collagen fibers?
strong and resistant to stretch
elastic fibers?
weak and application of force causes stretch
1. bone to bone
2. prone to sprains
3. more elastic than tendon
1. less elastic than ligaments
2. muscle to bone
3. transfer forces from muscle to bone
hooke's spring law
F = stiffness * distance stretched
store and return mechanical energy
cortical bone?
provides majority of stretch and stiffness
cancellous bone?
lighter, but able to bear load
fractures occur when?
loading to failure
Wolff's Law states that?
remodeling of bone occurs in response to physical stress
stress ?
force / CSA
load deformation curve which region acts like a perfect spring?
elastic region
past yield point get?
in plastic region and get a permanent change
which region in the load deformation curve allows to achieve for ROM
plastic stage
efferent (motor)
from CNS to muscle
afferent (sensory)
from periphery to CNS
sliding filament model
1. release Ca2+ expose binding site
2. power stroke- slide past ea other
3. ATP binds to myosin releasing actin
4. ATP hydrolyzed, myosin head return to resting position
temporal summation
1 motor unit; caused by a single impulse of force
spatial summation
from different areas
type 1 muscle fiber composition
slow, small, fatigue resistant
(endurance, postural muscles)
type 2 muscle fiber composition
fast, medium, fatigue resistant
type 3 muscle fiber composition
fast, large, fatigable
(explosive actions, doesn't produce force for a long time but produces a lot of force
concentric muscle contractions
muscle shortens while producing force
isometric muscle contractions
muscle stays the same length while producing force
eccentric muscle contractions
muscle lengthens while producing force
long, parallel fibers
low force, high displacement and velocity
shorter, fan-like fibers
high force, low displacement and velocity