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74 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Motor Skills Require?
Body, head, and/or limb movement to achieve its goal
Motor learning involves?
Acquisition of new skills
Performance enhancement of skills
Reaquisition of skills
Motor Control involves the Study of?
How the neuromuscular system functions to enable coordinated movement
Motor development involves the study of?
Human development from infancy to old age
Factors that influence motor skill learning?
motor skill performance
Performance environment
the skill
Skills
Tasks or activities that have specific goals to achieve
Actions
Term often used as synonymous with the term "motor skills"
Movements
behavioral characteristics of a specific limb or a combination of limbs
Three motor skill classifications that use one-dimension approaches
size of primary musculature required
specificity of where actions begin or end
stability of the environment
Gross motor skills
require use of large musculature to achieve the goal
fine motor skill
require control of small muscles to achieve the goal of the skill
discrete motor skills
specified beginning and end points, usually require a simple movement
continuous motor skills
arbitrary beginning and end points; usually involve repetitive movements
serial motor skills
involve a continuous series of discrete skills
closed motor skills
involve a stationary supporting surface, object and or other peole; performer determines when to begin the action
open motor skill
involve supporting surface, object, and/or other people in motion; environment features determines when to begin the action
taxonomy
a classification system organized according to relationships among the component characteristics of what is being classified
regulatory conditions
characteristics of environment that control the movement characteristics of an action
intertrial variability
whether the regulatory conditions are the same or different from one performance attempt to another
body orientation
does the skill require the person to move from one location to another or to stay in the same location
object manipulation
results in change of the position of an object
What is performance measurement essential for?
performance assessment/evaluation
motor learning and control research
performance outcome measures
indicates the outcome or result of performing a motor skill
Does not tell us about behavior
Does not provide information about activity
Performance Production measures
indicate the performance of specific aspects of the motor control system during the performance
Reaction Time (RT)
indicates how long it takes a person to prepare and initiate a movement
simple RT
one signal - one response
Choice RT
more than one signal - each signal has a specific response
Discrimination RT
more than one signal - only one response
Pre-motor time

Fractionated RT
Quiet interval of time between the onset of stimulus and beginning of activity
Motor time

Fractionated RT
Interval of time from the initial increase in muscle activity until the actual limb movement
Why error measures?
error measures allow us to evaluate performance for skills that have spatial or temporal accuracy action goals
Absolute error (AE)
absolute value of difference between the actual performance on each trial and the criterion for each trial
Constant Error (CE)
Algebraic value of difference between the actual performance on each trial and the criterion for each trial
Variable Error
the standard deviation of the CE scores; and index of performance consistency (variability)
Radial Error
general accuracy measure for two dimensions
Kinematics
description of motion without regard to force
Displacement

Kinematics
Spatial position of a limb or joint over a period of time
Velocity

Kinematics
rate of change in an object position with respect to time
Acceleration

Kinematics
change in velocity during movement
Kinetics
force as a cause of motion
human movements involve both external and internal sources of force
Electromyography (EMG)
recording of muscle electrical activity, determine when a muscle begins and ends activation
Electroencephalography (EEG)
Measures electrical activity in the brain
Positron Emission Topography (PET)
Neuroimaging technique that measures blood flow in the brain
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI)
Neuroimaging technique that measures blood flow changes in the brain by detecting blood oxygenation characteristics
Ability
a general trait or capacity of a person, relatively enduring characteristic, serves as a determinant of a persons achievement potential for the performance of specific skills
motor ability
an ability that is specifically related to the performance of a motor skill, each person has a variety of motor abilities
General Motor ability hypothesis
many different motor abilities that exist are highly related within a person and can be grouped as a singular, global motor ability
Specificity of motor ability hypothesis
many motor abilities are relatively independent in an individual
Static Balance
equilibrium while stationary
Dynamic Balance
equilibrium while in motion
External Timing
movement timing based on external source
Internal Timing
timing of movement based on person's internal representation of time
What is a theory?
accurately describes a large class of observations, make definite predictions about results of future observations
Motor control theory
describes and explains how the nervous system produces coordinated movement of motor skill in a variety of environments
Coordination
patterning of body and limb motions relative to the pattering of environmental objects and events
degrees of freedom problem
how to control the degree of freedon to make a complex system act in a specific way
Open-loop control system
does not use feedback, control center provides all the information for effectors to carry out movement
Closed-loop control system
uses feedback, control center issues information to effectors sufficient only to initiate movement
Motor program based theory
memory based mechanism that controls coordinated movement
Dynamic pattern theory
describes and explains coordinated movement control by emphasizing the role of information in the environment and mechanical properties of the body and limbs
Generalized motor program (GMP)
proposed that each GMP control a class of actions that have invariant characteristics
GMP Function
to serve as the basis for generating movement instructions prior to and during the performance of an action
GMP characteristics
invariant features: do not vary across performances of a skill within a class of actions, the identifying signature of a GMP
Paramaters: specific movement features added to the invariant features to enable the performance of a skill in a specific situation, characteristics can vary from one performance of a skill to another
Attractor

Dynamic pattern theory
a stable state of the motor control system that leads to behavior according to preferred coordination patterns
Order parameters

Dynamic pattern theory
also called collective variables, functional specific and abstract variables that define the overall behavior of the system, enable a coordinated pattern of movement that can be reproduced and distinguished from other patterns
Control Parameters

Dynamic pattern theory
a variable when increased or decreased will influence the stability and character of the order parameter, provides the basis for determining attractor states for patterns of limb movement
Self organization

Dynamic pattern theory
when certain conditions characterize a situation, a specific pattern of limb movement emerges, this pattern of movement self organizes within the characteristic of environmental conditions and limb dynamics
Perception and Action coupling

Dynamic pattern theory
the linking together of movement to environmental information
Perception - action
cognitive stage

Fitts and Posner 3 stage
beginner focuses on solving cognitively-oriented problems
associative stage

Fitts and Posner 3 stage
person has learned to associate cues from the environment with required movements; works to refine performance to be more consistent
autonomous stage

Fitts and Posner 3 stage
final state where performance of the skill is "automatic" in terms of attention demanded
Initial stage

Fitts and Posner 2 stage
learner works to achieve 2 goals, movement coordination pattern to enable some degree of success, learn to discriminate between regulatory and non-regulatory conditions in environment
Later stage

Fitts and Posner 2 stage
acquiring 3 characteristics: adapting initial movement pattern to demands of any performance, increase consistency of action goal achievement, perform with an economy of effort
An Expert
a person who is located at the extreme right end of the learning stages continum