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40 Cards in this Set

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What is the basic paradigm and implications of Metcalf & Mischel's Hot/Cool study?
Child presented w/ food. Wait amt of time gives you double the reward or hit bell to get single reward. Preschool delay time ==> increased SAT V&M, parental rating of ability to reason, planfulness, handle stress, self-control in frustrating situations, concentrate without becoming distracted.
Define hot/cold system.
Hot = emotional, “go” simple, reflexive, fast, develops early, stimulus-controlled, accentuated by stress = amygdala

Cold = cognitive, “know” complex, reflective, slow, develops late, self-controlled, attenuated by stress
= hippocampus + frontal lobe
What do Freud and radical behaviorists both agree on?
Both agree that behavior is not under internal control. Willpower is a fiction!
Describe the relationship between hot/cool nodes.
Hot nodes are not connected to each other. Cold nodes can activate hot nodes, but are connected to a LOT of other cool nodes. Thus, hot can activate cool, which in turn can activate other cool and remove the “problem.”
How does stress affect the hot/cool systems?
Cool system activated by little stress, shut down by too much stress (Yerkes-Dodson Rule). Hot system generally activated by stress, regardless of amount. Chronic stress can decrease volume of hippocampus.
What drugs are related to the hot/cool systems?
Epinephrine/adrenaline = hot system
Propranolol = cool system
Corticosteroids (high levels) = inhibits cool processing (stops inflammation, not anabolic steroids)
How can the hot system be controlled?
a. Obscure or ignore stimulus.
b. Distract yourself (activate non-relevant nodes of either hot or cool system).
c. Reframe meaning of stimulus
Define self-concordance.
extent to which a goal reflects personal interests and values versus something one feels compelled to do by external or internal pressures
Describe high and low self-concordance.
HIGH = intrinsic (it’ll be fun)
= identified (you believe it’s important to do)
LOW = external (someone wants me to)
= introjected (I’ll feel guilty or anxious if I don’t)
Goal process is related to...
commitment, efficacy, self-concordance
Self concordance is only related to progress under what conditions...
implementation intentions .
What is BPS?
Act of creating a self-improvement that makes people feel closer to best possible self.
What do most people think of the function of plans in terms of?
Only 12% reported that the function of plans is to facilitate process of change. People don’t understand that a PLAN is vital. They think in terms of the goal; the outcome. When asked “why do you make a plan for change?” the answer is = improve self-esteem, feels good, want to achieve goals, etc.
What are the effects of poor planning (vague) vs. detailed (specific) planning?
Poor plans allow people to feel closer to their BPS. It’s going to be easier to do, and so you feel good.
Describe the Self-control Strength Model.
1. Acts of volition require strength
2. People can override only a finite number of urges at same time
3. All self-control operations draw on the same resource
4. Current acts of self-control reduce the amount of resources available for subsequent efforts (limited strength model)
What are the sources of stress that inhibit self-control?
Coping as inhibition: (Coping = inhibition = blocking sensations, overriding thoughts, stopping emotions. The White Bear problem!!),
noise, crowding, bad smells, general stress
What are the aftereffects of bad moods in dieters and non-dieters?
Bad moods in dieters cause an increase in eating. Bad moods in non-dieters cause a DECREASE in eating.
What are the aftereffects of happy vs. sad thoughts in delay of gratifaction?
Happy thoughts --> increased delay
Sad thoughts --> decreased delay
How do the authors respond to the alternative explanation of learned helplessness for self-control depletion?
Muraven and Baumeister challenge the learned helpnessness model: Although not all dieting is entirely successful and some temptations are not resisted, it seems excessive to propose that dieting is a training in learned helplessness. Dieters may succeed at resisting temptations in the short term. Dieters who smoke who are trying to quit smoking show an increase in eating.
How do the authors respond to the alternative explanation of negative emotions and arousal for self-control depletion?
A cold pressor task in which participants had to hold hands in ice cold water for an amt of time consisted of two groups: one had option to remove hands, other did not. Both completed the task, and both reported same degree of moods. Group w/ no control over stress, however, performed more poorly on the next task of proofreading. This suggests that mood regulation, not mood effects, explains the link between stress and self-control.
How does a person increase strength of self-control?
Like a muscle, there is a long-term effect of gaining strength with practice. People should improve in self-control ability even after failing at the self-control task, however, because the exertion of self-control is more important than the outcome.
What did the results of "Overcoming the planning fallacy through willpower" (Koole and Spijker) reveal?
Attaching implementation intentions to goals led to:
a) more optimistic completion predictions
b) greater increase in actual rates of goal completion
c) significant reduction in optimistic bias in completion predictions
d) fewer interruptions
Define planning fallacy.
Planning fallacy-- the belief that you will accomplish your goals more quickly than you actually do
What are the effects of speed incentives and accuracy incentives on predictions?
Speed incentive --> increased optimistic bias (promotes actual task performance, so certain amt is inevitable)
Accuracy incentive --> increased pessimistic bias
What are implementation intentions and its benefits?
Implementation intentions-- concrete action plans that specify when, where, and how to act. They are helpful in promoting a variety of health-promotion and disease-prevention behaviors. Ultimately, they are a powerful self-regulatory tool that serve to bring people's actions in line with their goals, reducing the planning fallacy.
Describe the experiment (method) conducted by Koole and Spijker about implementation intentions.
Two groups, goal intention or implementation intention, showed almost identical return rates. Each person in both groups made a prediction about start and finish time. The implementation-intention group was given additional instructions. They were also asked to specify when and where they intended to write their report, as well as visualize the chosen situation and commit to it by silently telling themselves to do it.
What were the results of Koole and Spijker's experiment?
The implementation intention group did better than goal intention group in these ways:
a) predicted AND displayed faster rates of goal completion
b) less unrealistic optimism (implementation intentions --> increased optimism + increased actual goal completion = decreased unfounded optimism)
c) fewer interruptions
In Buehler and Griffin's "Planning, personality and prediction", what was the primary hypothesis?
A focus on plan-based scenarios (future focus) contributes to the optimistic bias because it tends to exert a stronger impact on predicted than actual completion times.
Describe the planning/prediction study involving Xmas shopping.
Two groups of people were asked to make predicted completion times for Christmas shopping. One group, however, before making the predictions, engaged in future focus (detailed explanation of when, where, how shopping would be done). The control group simply made predictions.
Describe the results of the planning/prediction study involving Xmas shopping.
Both groups exhibited optimistic bias, but the future focus group showed a much greater bias. Procrastinators finished closer to the deadline than non-procrastinators, but also predicted the completion time more accurately.
Describe the planning/prediction study involving class assignments.
Two groups asked to predict completion date of assignment. One group underwent future focus manipulation.
Describe the results of the planning/prediction study involving class assignments.
The future focus instructions produced more optimistic predictions without affecting actual completion times and, as a result, exacerbated the optimistic bias in prediction. Like in Study 1, there was no difference in the degree of optimistic bias involving procrastination. Both studies confirm the hypothesis that future focus CAUSES optimistic bias in prediction and does NOT influence actual completion time.
How is chronic procrastination related to self-image?
Procrastinators are overly concerned and protective of their self-presentational image and try to avoid (sometimes by doing nothing) situations that show an adverse negative image.
Describe Ferrari and Tice's "Procrastination as a self-handicap" study involving practice.
Participants were given a chance to practice to improve performance on a boring, cognitive math test. They were also given the option to do a fun, unrelated task instead of practice.
Describe Ferrari and Tice's "Procrastination as a self-handicap" results involving practice.
Procrastinators were less likely to prepare for a future evaluation.
Describe Ferrari and Tice's "Procrastination as a self-handicap" study involving importance of a mental task.
Half of participants were informed that performance on the actual math task reflected actual mental cognitive intelligence. The other half told that the math task was just a game and to have fun with it.
Describe Ferrari and Tice's "Procrastination as a self-handicap" results involving importance of a mental task.
The results indicate that the relationship between self-reported procrastination and behaviorial procrastination was apparent only when the task was described in ego-threatening terms. When the task was unimportant and labeled fun, no relationship between self-reported and behavioral procrastination was found. Ultimately, people will use behavioral procrastination as a behavioral self-handicapping strategy, but only when the impending task is labeled important to one's personal worth.
Describe Pezzo's "Social Implications of Planning" view on how past failures affect predictions.
Self-presentation concerns may increase the extent to which one can jointly hold a pessimistic general theory and yet still make a current optimistic prediction.
Describe Pezzo's "Social Implications of Planning" study on self-presentation.
Two groups, one assigned to familiar experimenter (high self-presentation) and the other assigned to anonymous experimenter (low). Each participant had either experienced success or failure w/ the experimenter. Failure involved not completing an Ebay task on time. All subjects then participated in a second task. The high-presentation task group was personally escorted by the experimenter to the location. The second task involved written work to be turned in via email. Each subject made predictions as to when homework would be completed. The high pres group had experimenter present at all times.
Describe Pezzo's "Social Implications of Planning" results on self-presentation.
Planning fallacy occurred more in the high-presentation group. Also, those who experienced past failure predicted and finished earlier times.