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123 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
Hobbes...wrote? said what about humans and instinct? right or left wing?
said humans are motivated by instinct to dominate others and maintain own freedom
right wing (conservative)
war of "all against all"
because of this human nature was nasty, brutish and short
John Locke.. right or left wing?
reason and natural law
left wing (liberal)
Bertrand Russell suggested what about right and left wingers
suggests left wingers are democracy while right wingers are authoritarian
Darwin wrote? said what about creatures and natural selection
wrote Origin of Species
said creatures reproduce faster than nature can provide and that there is a natural selection which results in survival of the fittest
Galton suggested what
only the strong survive
british imperialism is
"white man's burden"
social darwinism is
theory that strong have the right to dominate the weak
behaviorism is that
all is learned
ethology is... one person who studied it is
biology of behavior
Konrad Lorenz (studied baby geese following himself and mother after hatching)
Lorenz wrote...argued that
wrote On Aggression
argued that aggression is innate and functional for survival
said aggression is useful bcuz it helps preserve the species or life
equilibrium between killing power and inhibitions of aggression
use of killing power as inhibitions so dont use it all the time
ex. the ravens who right vs. doves vs. wolves
ashley montagu wrote..says that..
man and aggression
says human aggression is learned and that learning is critical in human behavior, not instincts
john paul scott criticized montagu and argued that
argued that crazy for evolution to be built in invidv. without reason
catharsis doesnt occur
cooperation competition
"natural law"
Goodall observed
chimps in natural world for longest period any species observed
studied chimps Flo(chimp mom), Figan(daughter) and Flint(son)
thought she was good mother bcuz she didnt push him away when other moms did
further findings..
flint died 8 days after mother because he was too attached and couldnt survive without her
when david grey beard died, 2 groups separated in north (called patrols bcuz patroled border) and south
further findings..
north would have violent raids and attacks against south; pummel and beat to death
eventually north killed all south males and older females, took all young south females and took over entire territory
pseudospeciaton means (in terms of chimps)
treat members of own species as if members of another species; treat member of own species like prey
final findings of chimp and war and killing
-intent to kill: didnt stop beatings until dead
-War similarities (only diff. between chimps and warfare was amount of planning done by humans vs. spur of the moment chimps)
psychopath is
has no feelings of bonding or attachment to anyone
within group.. aggression is modulated by...
between group.. agression is modulated by..
root of most aggression is
attachment to own group so very hostile to others
environment theories
aggression is learned and based on environmental factors
frustration-aggression hypothesis
dollard, doob, miller, sears, mowrer
frustration is necessary and sufficient for aggression
miller said
frustration is inevitable anticedent for aggression
bandura and walters..theory? 3 factors?
social learning and personality development
3 factors:
-imitation and modeling (learn behavior by observing others)
-reinforcement(determine if behavior is performed)
-frustation(stress increases strongest responses)
Bobo doll study findings
whether punished or not, behavior is learned
Davitz frustration study
give candy to kids and at climax of movie take candy away.. put in 2 groups
cooperative group was more cooperative and competitive group was more competitive
Feshbach said
kids arent frustrated but if they were after seeing violent film, the result would be catharsis and less aggression
Berkowitz introduced what to Walters study.. and what was study about
introduced frustration
study was 2 people come into lab, one is trained to make remarks about other's school; shocked person insulting; found more aggressive if shocks deserved than not deserved
field experiments for pain cues done by..
stein and friedrich
their study was
observe nursery school classes for 4 weeks after kids had aggressive or non aggressive diets of films, then were observed for 2 weeks
aggresive diet increased aggressive behavior in more aggressive kids (decrease inhibitions) in 2nd 4 week period, then went back to normal after 2 weeks
moyer concluded
all theories of aggression are correct and true
6 aggressions are
predatory, inter-male, fear induced (territorial, maternal), irritable, instrumental, sex related
predatory stimulus, setting, physiology
natural prey
lateral hypothalamus (amygdala)
inter-male stimulus, setting, physiology
male rival (assoc. with submissive and dominant display)
fear induced
any threat
confined to a setting (when concerned, will fight)
fear induced-territorial
any threat
confined to territory
fear induced-maternal
any threat
young present
oxytocin prolactin
irritable stimulus, setting and physiology
any object
stressful and frustrating
*frustation induced
any object
any environment
learning and memory
sex related
sexual arousal
sex hormones
sex and aggression
associated with reptilian (sub cortical brain)
difficult communication (problems in emotional education and competance)
use media, modeling and imitation
Hamiliton suggests
diff. between simple and complex life forms
complicated sexuality is in simple life form
investment of offspring
males have little while females have a lot
female invested in nurturance for young and for herself
males sexual strategy is to have as many kids as possible with as many partners
morris wrote
naked ape
pointed out process of human evolution
human sexuality evolution
evolved in order to facilitate emotional bonds between male and female
-male has larger penis
-female dev. fat deposits in breasts and butt
-human female is continulously receptive (not true of other primates)
Morris and human evolution
human evolution involves getting male involved w/ caring for young; male humans have had to evolve to nurture young
money studied..
hermaphroditism; thought social learning was primary determinant of sex roles
Pre-1968 and porn
porn was illegal
16 min. stag films
found very little aggression in them
hard core vs. soft core
hard core-intercourse
soft core-everything else
slade's analysis
analyzed films- 5 in sound, 4 in color
67 out of 1333 films had rape
39 out of 368 had any violence
1st amendment protection of images-legalizes porn
8mm film came about, making porn easier to produce
mid 1970s
aggressive and sexual content increased
donnerstein study
found non-hard core, R rated films have come to depict graphic violence in sexual situations and often against women
Abelson et al. survey.. 2 questions
1. attitudes toward porn(no consensus)
2. who are users of porn(90% of men say yes, 80% of women say yes--adults once a year while teens are frequent)
high recent experience
5 times in 2 years
people who are more involved in media
higher in adult male, higher in adolescent females
highest consumption for men, for women?
men is 21-29
women is 18-20
study by NAVY of people in adult book stores
white, middle class, middle aged married men
found they had relatively low experience with sex related material in adolescence and high sexual interest as adults
goldstein study with sex offenders
found low exposure may be symptom of more widely disrupted sexual developement
denmark experiment with aggression
found increased aggression in men after seeing film
aggressive or erotic films did lead to aggression against women
process of before, during and after denmark study
before-got measure of attitudes
during-used aggressive and erotic films

used film to argue against rape myth
attitude had changed
less accepting of violence against women
6 mo. later, same attitude persisted
percent of chat rooms sexually orientated
Harlow 1980's exploration of emotional development and expression
control environment of infant monkeys to learn effects of enviroment
90% died when lived in cage
cling to hand if someone reached in
put terry cloth in and death rate fell a lot
contact comfort
when monkey spent a lot of time clinging to cloth
2 sided cage with monkeys
infant monkey only spent time in wire side for feeding and spent rest of time with cloth
Bowlby and attachment theory
said attachment to mother is critical for infant to explore environment, mother is "safe base"
Experiment with monkey in room by itself and presence of mother
-by itself, laid in fetal position and trembled
-wire mother in room made no difference
-cloth mother in room, hug mother, and after short time played happily in room
Harlow and abusive "mothers"
shook, blew cold air, rejecting mother
after baby confused, hug mother harder
couldn't make baby afraid of mother
realized mother had huge effect on breeding; they couldnt do it bcuz didnt know how
Harlow and 3 stages in dev. of monkeys
1.maternal affectional system (infancy)
2.peer affectional system (childhood)
3.heterosexual affectional system (adolescants)
maternal affectional system-necessary condition and effect of system
condition is contact comfort
effect is security and trust in baby
peer affectional system
security and trust
communicate with other monkeys
heter. affectional system
comm. with other monkeys
social organization
peer affectional system learning to communicate thru
threats, submission, warning
young baby and shot procedure and findings
procedure: mom, nurse, mom, nurse (shot), mom
findings:baby expression to pain is similar to adults expression of anger; changes to sad after shot; hand child back to parent is hurt expression
RE Miller study comm. in monkeys
press bar when light comes onto avoid shock
1st animal-no bar but had light "sender"; sent facial expression so other animal knew to press bar
2nd animal-no light but had bar "receiver"
findings... isolate and normal
found this did work
comm. was disrupted
normal->isolate:didnt look at TV, didnt respond
isolate->normal:isolate always express fear, normal couldnt distinquish between real fear and isolate's level of fear
scenic slides study
5 kinds: sexual, scenic, pleasant people, unpleasant, unusual
watched slide for 10 secs. then described feelings for another 10; rated emotional experience from pleasant to unpleasant; videotaped person and other in room asked to choose what slide they saw by reaction
found: if got less than 20% it was by chance, rest above this was communication
more findings of study
women better senders then men
good senders were extroverted with high self esteem
small physiological response to slide (lower heart rate, fewer ED responses)
internalizers vs. externaliers
i-high physio. responses, low overt response or expression
e-low physio. response, high expression
internalizing kids charac.
shy, quiet, few friends, responsible, controlled, cooperative, introverted
externalizing kids chara.
active, out going, extroverted, many friends, impulsive, hostile, bossy
Broca's area damage
aphasis (comprehend speech but can't talk)
Wernicke's area damage
receptive apahsia (talk but not comprehend)
less upset about condition bc dont understand condition
pantomine test recognition
drink glass, show pic of glass, lock, scissors and are supposed to point to glass
non brain damage
parkinsons disease
lack of facial expressions
neurocultural model
effortless intuition
try to hide emotion, control displays ex. headache at a party but still pretend to have fun
displays rules
control display to go along with social expectations
pseudo-spontaneous comm.
senders POV; its symbolic to deceive person of true feelings, person learned how to do this
exploratory drive and drive theory
animal would choose exploration over food in a maze
White Effectance Motivation and Concept of Concept
be effective in environment by exploration to be competant (effective interaction with environment)
*curiosity has biological basis
Piaget and IQ tests
children's reasoning
from their reasoning their answers were correct
felt exploration and curiosity are basis for whole purpose
assimilate info. to certain perplexity(too complex, dont understand- too simple, dont care)
equiliberation process
info-> assimilation-> accomodate
sensory motor birth (18 months)--child behavior
act as if world is composed of stable objects
trevarthan experiment
mother interact with baby through TV; when 2 see each other, coordinate behavior; but with tape, baby gets upset bcuz cant coordinate behavior with mother
music findings
listening to music is exploratory behavior where explore own feelings
liked if it made them feel powerful; didnt like if boring
positive correlation between interested and liking video
LeDoux study of auditory systems response to fear
diff. parts respond to diff. frequencies
taught rats to respond to tone with shocks
contapical cut in rats
rat was deaf but fight or flight response remained
non-contapical cut in rats
could still hear but fight or flight turned off, goes to amygdala
auditory agnosia
rat still knew tone b/c respond by blood pressure byt couldnt consciously know
visual agnosia
connections between usual
left side of brain
analytic cognition
"systematic rationality assoc."
right side of brain
syncretic cognition
"effortless intuition"
social motives of emtion
behavior is response to social expectations (school, job)
1930s study by Sherif
auto-kinetic phenomenon
in dark room, pt. of light distance away, will seem to move even though stationary; entirely SUBJECTIVE
if 2 people in room together with diff. opinions originally
come together to form group norm; if someone offers outrageous guess, others would est. high estimate close to theirs
Asch and social influence study
ask people simple questions; ex. box same length?
8 people in room, only 1 person in real study
social pressure trials
give obviously wrong answer
1/3 of time, people conform to group
1 person gave right answer, conformity = 0
*any support, person gives right answer
Milgram study of teacher and student
2 people in study; learner strapped in chair while teacher told to give shock for every wrong answer
predictions by psychs
more than half stop after 150 volt mark
02% went to end
60% went to end
related to conformity and "obediance"
shows how det. we are to follow social expectations
women conform more than men
men more aggressive then women (give stronger shocks)
Bettelheim and 3 stages of adapting to environment
prisoners and guards
stage one
actions were doing things contrary to their values
handle prison by built up attachments to outside (news, talk about life)
opennly said not allow experience to change person
stage two
took attitude must adjust to conditions of camp
didnt talk about previous life, resisted news and contact with outside
stage three
group goes along with guard
walk, talk, dress like guard
need to identify with guard
didnt care about outside
Steiner terms
stage one-compliance(do it bcuz supposed to)
stage two-identification
stage three-internalization(adjust to prison, called Easy Time)