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165 Cards in this Set

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When will you respond more to an SSRI
high prefrontal low amygdala
How is the hippocampus involved and what it interested in?
context
Whats wrong with people with PTSD?
People with PTSD generalize, they did not context condition very well
Where people born that way or were they made that way (PTSD)
Steroids damage hippocampus (right near the blood brain barrier)
Steroids damage brain cells
Might also be born with it and have predisposition, the more sever your PTSD the smaller your hippocampus
Is this a risk factor, some people have twins that did not go to war-they were born with this, small hippocampus is a risk factor
A lot of people go through trauma and don’t develop PTSD, 95% don’t develop PTSD
What is an obsession
thought
What is a compulsion ?
behavior
What can happen if anxiety is not treated?.
Anxiety and Depression are very related, unchecked anxiety can lead to depression
DEscribe the rat in the box.
What if the hurdle is higher for the rat in the box so the animal cannot escape them, in second phase you drop the hurdle-won’t do anything cannot move, curls up, doesn’t sleep well, Learned helplessness-you have no control over your circumstances
What is your attributional style?
where do you attribute blame when things go bad
What has a huge impact on depression
the thigns you say to yourself in your head
What shold you never say to a child?
Never say never, or never say always-we make events global and they are not
how ong can depression persist?
months
What does unipolar mean?
you only go to one side of the pole
What happens when people are manic and never go back down
you have no weariness about life
When will you respond more to an SSRI
high prefrontal low amygdala
How is the hippocampus involved and what it interested in?
context
Whats wrong with people with PTSD?
People with PTSD generalize, they did not context condition very well
Where people born that way or were they made that way (PTSD)
Steroids damage hippocampus (right near the blood brain barrier)
Steroids damage brain cells
Might also be born with it and have predisposition, the more sever your PTSD the smaller your hippocampus
Is this a risk factor, some people have twins that did not go to war-they were born with this, small hippocampus is a risk factor
A lot of people go through trauma and don’t develop PTSD, 95% don’t develop PTSD
What is an obsession
thought
What is a compulsion ?
behavior
What can happen if anxiety is not treated?.
Anxiety and Depression are very related, unchecked anxiety can lead to depression
DEscribe the rat in the box.
What if the hurdle is higher for the rat in the box so the animal cannot escape them, in second phase you drop the hurdle-won’t do anything cannot move, curls up, doesn’t sleep well, Learned helplessness-you have no control over your circumstances
What is your attributional style?
where do you attribute blame when things go bad
What has a huge impact on depression
the thigns you say to yourself in your head
What shold you never say to a child?
Never say never, or never say always-we make events global and they are not
how ong can depression persist?
months
What does unipolar mean?
you only go to one side of the pole
What happens when people are manic and never go back down
you have no weariness about life
What is bereavement?
needs to be ruled out to diagnosis ie Did anything really major happen
What is an autoreceptor?
involved in reuptake, controls it
Describe an SSRI and why does it work?
Serotonin is transmitter (SSRI are selective meaning it only works on some synapses, works on reuptake and inhibits it)
If can increase serotonin usage you feel less depressed
Could try to jack up serotonin, can figure out way to work with a small number, so block reuptake
Uping usage not serotonin
What is the relationship between parkinsons anf schizophrenia?
Parkinsons is not enough dopamine in receptors, so you give them schiphrenia because dopamine is upped everywhere
What happens with drug usage over time>Why?
Worked really well for a while and then stopped working, tolerance mechanisms at synapse
Brain will try to get back to set point because it associates that with normal, so it erases receptors, brain is very plastic place-get a rebound effect
How did drugs start?
trial and error
How do we generally treatment?
what works for me even if we don't why
What is best for therapy?
Best when drugs and therapy are used together-drugs get you on the playing field, no drug for life, drug gets you to show up for appointments and do hw
Some believe therapy is the only way
What is the deal with noncompliance?
Noncompliance makes people not want to take drugs, number one reason is sexual disfunction
Why is the rat a good model of depression
The reason rat is a good model of depression is because if you give the rat an SSRI he starts jumping-very good animal model of depression
When do we see random ink?
When we have brain damage
What is important in the way we perceive things?
we do so with bias
What is valence?
negative and positive continium ie the word shady could be tree or could be
How old is the amygdala?
its an older area of the brain
What does hippocampus and amygdala mean?
Hippocampus (means seahorse) and amygdala (almond) people don’t like the other
What is girus and solcus?
Girus-is a pump, solcus-is space in between
Decribe the cortex.
Smoother cortex means less smooth, cells that do all the work only go about 3 inches down, its what’s on the outside the counts
Keep skull same size and get more surface area
Why are dolphins awesome?
Dolphins have more than we do, they have sonar
What is the limbic system
The limbic system is a number of brain structures that support emotional processing, now one has really shown it working as a system
Limbic means border-brain has fluid in the middle so if you hit your head you have some bubble wrap, fluid diminishes contact, cue and contracue, brain sloshes over,
Who likes MRIs better
kids...they think its like a fort
What is the difference between an exray and an MRI
X-Rays pass radiation through your body, MRI is just a magnet
Does everyone believe in localization?
We believe in localization, we can point and say this does this, not everybody believes in localization, I think they are stupid
Where does humanness come from?
human-ness is in the prefrontal cortex and also gives your personality,
are labels good?
yes
What does the brain love to see?
faces!
Do animals use non verbal communication?
yes
What is amygdala interested in
Show threat versus non-threat, amygdala is much more interested in fear versus neurtal or happy
what does subliminal mean?
amygdala is working on its own
What is backward masking?
is how you make the stimuli subliminal, fear followed by neutral
If you know what it is…it’s to late…amygdala’s message to us, we can’t process everything at an aware level
What is the thalamus?
you sensory relay station, most go to the thalamus first, primary visual cortex lives there, neuron senses lines and orientation which can then get put into meaningful shapes.
What are association cortexes?
Association cortexes are next to primary and put stuff together
How are messages sent around the brain?
Why have a relay station, filtering it, thalamus is part of the filter, thalamus can send it in different directions, if something is coming at head your vision only sees that, do you need to know if brick or television, you need to duck, you also send a signal to get out of the way
What types of things does the brain automate?
Brain automates motor programs such as picking up on faces, we automates lots of things, most of emotional life goes on without our knowledge, after a while brain will take over, walking is complex you are exciting and inhibiting one at the same time, driving, stiatum knows this
What triggers more fear for amygdala
eye whites
What happened with Phineas cage?
Cavendish VT 1848-Phineas Gage, blast rock with dynamite, most responsible guy in town, fist fight breaks out and goes to break it out, sand boy was distracted and iron went right through his head, worked at Hanover Inn, live neurons near damage tissue, starts getting seizures, became irritable and aggressive, didn’t interact with people well he did but it inappropriate, prefrontal holds down amygdala so that can no longer inhibit the amygdala, if we wanted it he took, all the rules were gone, started swearing like a drunken sailor, can not regulate emotions
What happens with the wisconsin card sorting test?
Changes the rules, build confidence and change the rule, measures ability to shift your response set, how to do you react, a lot of people will stick with number, but you need to shift,
Where does cognition happen?
the brain
How does bottom up and top down work in the brain?
Amygdala-bottom up activity, activate and then tell cortex,
Top down-can regulate amygdala, you will be false alarming like crazy, if see snake in zoo amygdala will have the same reaction, but cortex will know you’re safe,Not responding to snake because of plexy glass is emotional regulation
What is the Nucleus Accumbens?
a positive place
How are we at fear conditioning?
very good
What are all fears
homemade
Can any object be made fearful?
yes
Is extinction unlearning?
no
What happens with innate fears?
Innate? Snakes and spiders-is different with everyone
Baby monkeys are afraid of snakes-raise without mother you will see that less
Monkey will show the same fear response to a rose
Its not the mouse
how do therapists make money/
by figuring out where the fear came from
What is desensitization?
expose to fear little by little
What is cognitive behavioral therapy?
What thinking? What do? How to think differently next time
What is the result of fear?
avoidance
What are the two types of emotional disorders
Two types of emotional disorder
Depression and anxiety
Very relevant to us
Anxiety and depression overlap a lot!
Knowing when you’ve crossed the line
Your brain is not handling it very well
How do we create animal models of disaster?
No longer shock animal they continue to avoid the buzzer
No more thing, but still avoid the other thing
What do we do to soothe when we are anxious?
motor programs
What do emotional disorders do to your life?
functionally impair your life
How can you trigger a panic attack?
Panic Attack-present with words that will concern people
Panic attack is internal and physical thing-a full blown attack where you feel like you are going to die
Fear of having another one
What is psychosis
detachment from reality-NOT GAD or DEPRESSION,
Agoraphobia
fear of social situations
How impairing is it?
How impairing depends on your circumstances
What happens in PTSD
ordinary people
They show a twofold amygdala response
Prefrontal cortex is not reactive enough
PTSD donb’t recruit prefrontal
Cortical area unable to control
Can you teach people to relax?
The lower their symptoms the higher their prefrontal cortex
What is the goal of a drug treatment
behaviorally report better and look for correlation in the brain of what happened
Can you help but read
no
What happens when you are working on a cognitive task
Affective areas of brain go down when working on cognitive task
What might happen when taking a test?
Allocate resources, increase activities in cognitive areas of the brain and brings down affective processing (during motivated cognitive task ie taking a test)
What happens when the body reacts?
the body can sense that as well
What happens for people with panic/ ptsd in terms of emotional processing?
PTSD and Panic-in normal brain its good thing that things go down, you don’t get this benefit if have panic, emotional processing gets equal weighting every second of the day
What does the sympathetic system? Parasympathetic
Sympathetic-brings up what you need in the moment, fight or flight, we have this system but stresses aren’t so acute, stays activated longer than it should
Parasympathetic-calming
What is the HPA axis?
Hypothalamus-pituitary gland-adrenal gland (on top of kidney)
Adrenal gland releases adrenaline and steroids called cortisol
Cortisol is an anti-inflammatory, release before get hit, swelling causes a lot of injury
In long term they stay in the blood and drive things like the heart
Cortisol inhibits the immune system
If stays cronic you get health issues
Are there universal stressors?
Nope they are your own, Stressors depend on context
What happens with the rats in the different shaped boxes?
Rats if stressed freeze and show brady cardia which is a heart rate decrease
If change shape-Tachy cardia which is increase and escape
Why might the rat freeze?
do plan an escape root
What is the think drink effect
Build bar in basement
WE have a lot of expectations about alcohol, now the set up of this study
Impairs reaction time, cognitive ability, mood changes, Expect-increased sexual arousal and aggression, mood changes in expectancy group to all start acting drunk, mood changes with alcohol start out positive then get negative
What will the body do in a context where it normally drinks?
If sees things that say we drink here the body will start making changes, craving response
Body wants to predict feeling again
If you always do drugs with the same three people you will respond to that
Body gets ready for the toxins
Where will your tolerance be lower?
Tolerance will be lower in other places and with other people because body, overdoses occur when a highly tolerant person does the drug in the new context because body has not prepared a response
How many times do we need to be exposed to stimuli for it to become fearful?
Can this occur with only one experience-true for taste experience
What happened with albert
John Watson-albert the baby, is petting the white rat, all fears are homemade
Albert became terrified of the rat
Albert never went through extinction
Do you only learn the stimuli?
You can’t disconnect, you don’t only learn stimuli you learn the environment
Rehab in woods vs in the city, learn all this new stuff about the drug, learn in new context, then go back to the inner city and they’re in the room with their friend and the response comes back
Why weren't the Vietnam vets an issue?
Worried about addicts from Vietnam-nothing happened because the context changed, they also had competing reinforcers (you need to support your family etc…we make choices)
What does the brain mostly do?
Most of what brain does is inhibit others regions, main neurotransmitter is GABA which is an inhibitor
When is the only time your amygdala will react to a suprised face?
Surprised –only show reaction in amygdala if think the face is negative
What does the opposite reaction of the amygdala
mPFC (ventral medial Prefrontal Cortex) does opposite of what amygdala is doing
What is the connection between the amygdala and the prefrontal cortex?
Prefrontal cortex comes in over time and then, everyone starts out a pessimist and some prefrontsal cortex just agree, you get cicuit that is the ability to regulate emotion, if something goes wrong with this circuit you get depression and anxiety disorder
What did zajonc do?
took Chinese ideographs and showed them subliminally, ½ you’ve seen have you haven’t, yes no is random, you like the old ones better, you like things you’ve seen before better, mere exposure effect-by simply exposing you to something you like it better
Emotion proceeds cognition that’s what mere, things influence emotional behavior that, Brain knows things and will move you around
Are we good at autobiographical memory?
Nope we suck
What happens with eyes?
Don’t get affect if we don’t see them, if see eye whites, prefrontal cortex can regulate it
Overt-people can see them, but not nearly as big a reaction
Demand characteristics
when an experimenters puts some demand on you and changes your behavior
What emotions are hard for us to distinguish
WE are bad at fear and surprise
What four things are important...give examples
Stimuli are important (pictures, videos)
You are important (anxiety level, past experience)
Context is important
Your body is important (facial feedback, heart rate)
What effect does the amygdala have on anxiety?
Measure state anxiety, the higher you were the more active amygdala was to neutral faces
Greater state anxiety=greater amygdala activity to neutral faces
Will you respond differently to a pic if shown a strong response before?.
Neutral faces will respond differently is shown a strong emotion, contrast effect
Happy and fear become a context,
Do we see fear less?
yes
Describe smiling
Smile is down with cortex
Say smile is voluntary and cortical
Involuntary-is subcortical, ie automatic
Striatum-
Kid has lesion is area that moves face muscles, you get on side going up, if someone cracks a joke he is fine
how does smiling affect the cartoons?
One will be funnier, the act of turning up mouth makes you a little happier, facial feedback hypothesis is this idea that your expressions are linked, brain is connected to the body,
What is broca's area?
allows you to move your mouth so you can speak, motor component for language, you know what you want to say and understand what other people say, but can’t make the movements to say the words
What is Wenickes area?
In temporal lobe, hearing is here, hears sound, association cortex puts things together, auditory assocation is Wernickes area, allows you to comprehend the speech of others
What is the Arcuate Fasciculus ?
the connection between Broca and WErnickes, if severed you can’t respond,
Where does language live vs emotion?
the left, Emotion might be primarily in the right, right might have the emotional equivalent of brocas,
When do you lack prosody?
lack this when lesion in right
What happens when there are lesions on the left and right?
If lesion in right of Wernickes every one else sounds like they are talking in monotone
Smiles are assymetrical which suggests motor stuff that moves left side of face is alittle better
What does a right hemisphere legion do to smiling?
only have responds to instructed, but all responds to laughing
What affect does the sympathetic have on the body
dilates pupils, relaxes bronchi,accelerates/ strenghens heart beat, inhibits stomach activity, contracts blood vessels?
What effect does the parasympathetic have on the body?
contracts pupils, constricts bronchi, slows hear, stimulates tummy, dilates blood vessels
What happens when you tell alcohol and give tonic?
changes modd positvely, increases sexual arousal and aggression
What happens when tell and give alcohol
impairs reaction time, cognitive ability, changes mood (first positive than negative) increases sexual behavior and aggression
What happens when tell alcohol and give tonic?
impairs reaction time, cognitive ability, changes mood positively
What is classical conditioning>
the process where a subject learns that a previously neutral stimulus predicts an uncoditioned stimulus becoming the new conditioned stimulus
What are two categories of emotional disorders?
mood disorders (bipolar/depression) and anxiety (PTSD, panic, GAD, social and specific phobia)
What is the two factor model of anxiety learning?
Place rat in two part chamber
Buzzer sounds - Rat shocked
Rat can avoid shock by jumping to other side Rat jumps Rat learns to jump to buzzer Now turn shock off Rat continues to jump to turn buzzer off, Buzzer now the source of fear
What kind of conditioning occurs with
the two factor model
First, Pavlovian conditioning
rat associates buzzer with shock
S-S
Then, instrumental conditioning (operant)
rat learns that avoidant behavior decreases anxiety
S-R
Will be more likely to perform that behavior in the future
(habit)
What happens in the two factor model with avoidance conditioning
Behaviors associated with decreasing anxiety can get quite complex
Back to the jumping rat
Rat jumps - Buzzer off
Now - Rat jumps - leave buzzer on until he presses a lever (no shock)
Rat will eventually figure out how to turn off buzzer
Can continually “chain” numerous behaviors together in order to
turn off the buzzer
***What was originally all about the shock is now all about the buzzer
Turning off buzzer is reinforcing
Avoidance Conditioning
What is Panic disorder characterized by?
recurrent panic attacks and at least 1 month of worry or concern over
having future attacks
– Panic attack = discrete period of intense fear and discomfort that
has a rapid onset
• rapid heart rate
• shortness of breath
• chest pains
• fear of dying, going crazy, passing out
• dizziness
• nausea
• shaking
• medical condition/drug rule-out
– caffeine, amphetamines, cocaine
• Can often lead to agoraphobia
amygdala vmPFC
What is PTSD
Exposure to an event or events that involved actual or threatened
death or serious injury and that evoked intense fear, helplessness, or
horror in the individual
• Reexperiencing symptoms
– Nightmares, flashbacks, intrusive memories
• Avoidance and emotional numbing
– Avoiding trauma-related stimuli, restricted range of emotion
• Increased arousal
– Hypervigilance, exaggerated startle, difficulty sleeping & concentrating
What is associated with high PTSD severity?
lower HC volume
What us a specific phobia?
• marked and persistent fear that is excessive and unreasonable
– small animals/insects, flying, heights, blood-injury
• these situations are avoided or endured with intense anxiety
What is a social phobia?
• marked and persistent fear of social situations involving possible scrutiny by
others
– performance, speaking, eating, writing, public bathrooms
• social situations are avoided
• the fear and avoidance interferes significantly with life
What is OCD?
obsessions: Recurrent thoughts or images that are inappropriate
and distressing.
• compulsions: Behavioral (or mental) acts that patients feel
compelled to perform to reduce distress or to prevent some
dreaded situation.
• excessive or unreasonable
• causes marked distress, time consuming, interferes with life
What is GAD?
• excessive and anxiety & worry for more days than not for at
least 6 months
• difficult to control the worry
• physical symptoms:
– muscle tension
– restlessness
– irritability
– sleep disturbance
– easily fatigued
• clinically significant impairment or distress interferes with life
What is learned helplessness?
Depressogenic Attributional Style
Tendency to attribute negative events to
internal, stable, global factors
• Internal – something about me
• Stable – unlikely or difficult to change
• Global – has broad impact on many areas of
life
What are some points of interest with SSRIs
2/3 people experience some relief with SSRIs
-CBT lasts longer than SSRIs
-CBT + SSRIs best
-Side effect of sexual dysfunction
What is major depressive disorder
severely depressed mood that persists for at least two weeks.
-
- periods of depression may occur as discrete events or as
recurrent over the lifespan.
-
- Where the patient has already had an episode of mania or
markedly elevated mood, a diagnosis of bipolar disorder
- depression without periods of elation or mania is therefore
sometimes referred to as unipolar depression
-diagnosis excludes bereavement.
What happens to the rat when the wall is raised>?
If you do not let the rat jump - but instead place a wall between
the two compartments and shock animal a number of times
The rat will not learn relationship between buzzer and shock
When wall is taken down - rat will not jump
Learned helplessness
Actually learn that you have little control over your circumstances
Give antidepressants - rat jumps
What is schizophrenia?
Diagnostic Criteria
Two (or more) of the following, each present for a significant portion of time during a 1-month period
1.delusions
2.hallucinations
3.disorganized speech (e.g., frequent derailment or incoherence)
4.grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior
5.negative symptoms, i.e., affective flattening, alogia, or avolition
Drugs help pos symptoms
Delusions - grandeur & paranoia
Hallucinations - mostly auditory
More common in males
Onset ~20 yrs old
What are the functions of embarassment
Social remediation (save face)
Appeasement (make amends with others)
What is self awareness? When will a child show this?
Self awareness is the ability to make yourself the object of your
own attention
AFTER children show self awareness in the mirror test THEN
- they use personal pronouns
- they gain autobiographical memory
- help mom if she feigns distress (Johnson, 1982)
- show embarrassment
What happens for autistic patients in term of embarassment and selfwareness
Autistic subjects can’t identify pictures of embarrassment
Don’t identify themselves in the mirror test
What is autism?
a pervasive developmental disability
that typically appears during the first
three years of life.
what is the epidemiology of autism?
Occurs in 1/1000 children
^Occurs more often in males
^70% have some form of mental retardation
^50% acquire spoken language
What is prosopagnosia? What happens when shown a part vs whole
WE're good at the whole, worse at the part, proso is equal in both just like autsim
What do autistic people focus on?
the part
What are the characterisitics of autism?
• Social relating and reciprocity
• Verbal and nonverbal communication
• Restricted/repetitive activities and interests
What is "relating and reciprocity"
Does not respond
positively to social
advances from others
• Fails to initiate
interactions with others
• Lack of eye contact
• Poor play skills
• Not motivated by social
reinforcers
What are verbal nonverbal communication issues in autistic patients
• Delayed or lack of
language
• May not understand
verbal instructions
• Needs more time to
process language
• May not have
functional way to
express his/her needs
What are restricted/ repetitive activities and interests?
>Excessive need for sameness
>Fails to engage in imaginative play
>Unusual fascination with certain activity,
toy, topic, or activity
>Repetitive movements--hands flapping,
rocking, spinning (self stimulatory)
What are cognitive/attentional problems for autistic patients?
• Uneven profile of skills
• Exceptional rote memory skills
• Poor comprehension skills
• May respond to irrelevant cues
of a task
What are characteristics or normally developing children
• Emotional Impulse Control
• Conforming and Friendly Behaviors
• Cooperative Play (Playing well with others)
• Assertive Leadership Skills
• Helping
• Sharing
• Comforting Behavior
WHAT ARE THE SOCIAL INTERACTION
CHARACTERISTICS OF HIGH-FUNCTIONING
AUTISTIC CHILDREN?
Poor Social Interaction Initiation
• Social Isolation in Less Structured Environments
• Difficulty Linking Emotions to Different Social Situations
• Difficulty Understanding the Causes of Emotions
• Fail to Consider the Perspective of Others
• Lack of Reciprocity
What are savants?
genius or talent etc,Most people who are savants are autistic Most people who are autistic are NOT savants
What is theory of mind? Who might lack it?
The concept that i have thoughts and other people have those thought, autistic children
Why might people with autism experience these symptoms?
• Is the part thing due to anxiety – don’t want to look at whole or is it b/c of how they think
What is theory of mind
having a sense of others’ selves – you have self awareness and understand that others have self-awareness