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83 Cards in this Set

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What is Elton's Niche?
Species occupation
What was Hutchinson's Niche?
the environmental conditions in which a species can maintin a population (temp and ph)
What is performace?
population, density, feeding rate
Abiotic means>
temp, ph, oxygen concentraton
When is the population density the best according to the graph?
In the middle of the physical/ chemical gradient
What matters in terms of survival?
Survival and growth don't really matter without reproduction
When will there be a larger population?
When there are more offspring
How do you maintain a population?
by reprouction!
What did Elton think a Niche defined?
Thought of what the species did in the environment, actions define interactions
what was hutchinson interested in?
under what conditions the species could survive
What is the Niche Volume?
Volume of all those conditions under which a species can maintain a population
What limits a species?
distribution, chemical factors, species interaction, dispersal
What can we do if we know a species niche?
Predict wher we will find
What does distribution normally coincide with?
abiotic limits such as with the bat and coral reefs
what is the most prevalent vector born disease in the US?
Lyme disease
What does summer do for disease?
Good for vectors, bad for flu
What causes Lyme disease?
ixodes (deer ticks) that suck your blood and carry borrelia pathogen
Describe Borellia.
It is a gram - spirochete
What is another example of a spirochete?
syphilis
How is borrellia transferred between mammals and birds?
by ticks
WHat does a tick do between stages?
has a blood meal
WHat limits a vector borne disease?
Distribution of the vector!
How do we know the limits of a vector borne disease?
The field tests
What limits tick distribution?
Temperature and water
How many variables did they find for tick water/temp?
16 decribing availability
Was the map the created accurate in predicting lyme disease?
Certainly!
What accounts for Western Cases of lyme disease?
Another species of deer tick
What does lyme disease attack
the CNS
Do diseases have seasonal dynamics?
Yes ie Australia and US are out of sync with flu
winter transmittance is easier
Are all diseases predictable?
Not stuff like cholera which is not cyclical
How do we put this into that model?
By changing B to have fluctuating values
What does cholera look like on a graph?
chaos
What is the amplitude of B for chaos?
bigger
What is the driver of seasonal dynamics?
chaos
What is El nino vs La nina?
El nino heats up in winter, la nina means cold and there is a regular pattern, therefore we can predict the incidence of flu by the ocean temp...why? because of changes in local conditions result
How do ecologicl effects on infectious disease typically operate?
through the dynamics of vectors and hosts!
What is the goal of most animals?
eat and don't get eaten
Describe the bunny, grass, lynx model
plants fill world, grass is self limiting, bunnies up cuz of grass etc
DEscribe the life of a deer tick.
A cycle which is complex and has multiple stages meaning the tick will have multiple hosts
What is true of all vector relationships?
Parasites pass on another parasite
What has the greatest impact on the tick population?
deer and mice!
What is mast year and what does it fo for animals?
when there are bumper cropsand the result in more animals
What do more acorns mean?
More mice!
What happens on plots where acorns are added?
More ticks!
What ratio will remain constant regardless of acorns?
Tick to Mice
What mouse delicacy is a scourge in North America? What is the problem?
Gypsy Moths which mic elove so it increases mice by decreases oak which in turn in bad for the mice?
Is there a way to reconcile the oak/mouse/ gypsy problem?
No because the two are directly linked
What can make a disease less severe?
When the population size is smaller
What are great environments for ticks? What is not and how does that affect?
People mice and deer, but not so much with chippies so as chippies go up mice struggle to find as much food and there is less transmission
Where do infectious diseases hit the hardest
babies!
What can milk do for certain dair infections?
Will have a higher content of lipids if infected, there will be more free floating fatty aacids, two types of lipids inhibit growth of staph infections
What do drs often not do which is stupid?
not get vaccinated
What do bacteria do that is human like and what is it called
sociomicrobiology, bacteria will redirect and signal one another to form biofilms, when bacteria form strucutres they are more resistant, we are learning how to talk to bacteria, quarum sesning is bacteria speak
What sort of infections are increasing?
Fungal infections are increasingly striking people, cancer patients may be more susceptible, very few drugs treat fungal infections
What new bit of technology are campuses looking at?
Antimicrobial mice which is 99% effective in deactivating/ preventing transmission, self cleansing
What is a huge disease threat? Who should we attend to first?
Pandemic flu we should attend to thus who are crucial to society first and then those most at risk we need to decide on whats most dangerous and find a quick production cycle
what new technology might replace a yucky flu-shot?
flumist which has been approved is refrigerated and is quick and painless
What is global warming waking up?
Sleeping viruses that can survive in the ice and then be released, some pathogens will be released by it is doubtable they will pose a huge threat
What rabbit vaccine is a two for one?
myxoma and RHD
How do you humans impact climate change?
deforesstation and combustion of fossil fuels which release heat trappers
How does global warming affect disease?
Affects the dispersal of vectors, storms like Katrina, the acutal diseases
What was ushered in by Hurricane Ivan?
a fungal disease known as soybean rust that loves warmth and moisture
What about coral reefs and coastal zones?
It destroys them which sucks because they may have cures etc
How does global warming affect animal interactions?
alters the blance among preadotr and competitors that help keep pests and pathogens in check
Whats moving northward in sweden?
disease bearing ticks?
How is lyme disease affected by people?
predators of deer and mice are being erased
What common vector is lovin' global warming?
Misquitoes who are very senstive to temperature and the warmth increases rates of production, number of meals, breeding and now we see more of them migrating to higher ground
What accelerates viral devlopment?
Dry Springs and hot summers
How do misquitos affect rodens?
Give west nile to birds, birds die, they normally regulate rodents
What do coastal storms trigger?
algal blooms ie red tide?
how do droughts affect trees?
weaken defenses
What do heat waves do?
Kill all on their own
What has happened with asthma
gone way up because of climate change
What problem has been happening in South America?
Dust from stupid Africa
What are tranposons
segments of DNA that are known to wonder aka jumping genes, source of mutation in bacteria, they carry no matieral accept for the matieral need to enter the DNA, but can disrupt
What is gene recombination?
Conjugation, Transduction, Transformation
Describe conjugation
Steps:donor cell contacts recipient, channel forms, an enzyme nicks a strand of the f factor and single strand passes through, when he strand arrives in the cell it makes a complemntaryy strand and a double helix forms, new dna is formed in the old cell, , double helix bends to form a loop and yield a plasmid
DEfine conjugation
two cells come together and a donor transfers some of its genetic material to a recipient, the donor is f+, and the receiver is f-, the plasmid of a donor is cell is called f factor and contains about 20 genes, the genes encodes enzymes that replicate DNa and encode for sex pili or F pili
What is Hfr
In Hfr-donater when DNA passes and goes to the chromosome
Define transduction
gene transfer occurs with the assistacnce of a bacterial virus (bacteriophage)
What are the steps of transduction?
bacteriophage attaches, DNa from phage enter the cytoplasm, viral DNA multiplies by encoding additional strands of phage DNA and other components, the bacterial DNA breaks down and some gets sucked into the phage
Phage particles are released, the normal phage go on, abnormal phage interacts with cell, phade DNA enter he host cell, but since it bacteria it sticks around and gives the DNA to the bacteria
What is transformation
bacterium acquires genes form its surrounding environment, direct uptake of fragments
How does transformation work?
Donor bacterium disintergrates and liberates its DNA, live bacteria takes it up, fragment enter the cytoplasm, integreated into DMA