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23 Cards in this Set

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  • Back
Presentation: Atrophic glossitis (sore, red, smooth tongue), esophageal webs, dysphagia midway down esophagus, and iron-deficiency anemia (microcytic hypochromic)
Plummer-Vinson Syndrome
What cancer is someone with Plummer Vinson Syndrome more likely to develop?
Squamous cell carcinoma of esophagus
How do you distinguish between Cushing's disease (ACTH-secreting pituitary tumor) from an ectopic ACTH-secreting tumor?
Inject high doses of Dexamethasone (synthetic glucocorticoid); Dexamethasone will decrease ACTH secretion by ~50% by pituitary tumor, but will not affect the ectopic tumor secretion.
Presentation: 65 y.o. man with periumbilical pain that localizes to the RLQ, tender abdomen, 100.5F
Diverticulitis, specifically the cecal diverticulum (apparently severe cases of diverticulitis can ascend that far up from the distal colon, it's preferred spot; if young person, it would be acute appendicitis)
At what plasma glucose level does glucosuria start to develop?
Constriction of which type of blood vessel is most important for minimizing the decrease in mean systemic filling pressure, during a period of blood loss
veins and venules
Most common cause of Malaria?
P. vivax, 85% of cases (usually causes splenic rupture)
Presentation: bleeding complications (thrombocytopenia), skin rash (eczema), and recurrent sinopulmonary infections
Wiskott-Aldrich; X-linked; decreased platelets and IgM; elevated IgG, IgA, and IgE; defective response to polysaccharide antigens, due to cytoskeletal defects in T cells in their ability to bind B cells
List bacteria whose virulence factors are phage-encoded.
O-antigen of Salmonella, erythrogenic exotoxins of S.pyogenes, Diphtheria toxin, C.botulinum toxin
List toxins that are chromosomally encoded
endotoxin and cholera toxin
What vessels does a PDA connect?
The aorta with the left pulmonary artery
Presentation: excessive freckling, multiple skin cancers, CORNEAL ULCERATIONS, **hint: figure shows A-A/T-T
Xeroderma Pigmentosa (Ar)
Presentation: telangiectasia, degenerative ataxia, defect in ATM gene product (PI-3 kinase) --> trouble detecting DNA damage, mitogenic s.t., and cell cycle control
How do you calculate relative risk?
Take the ratio of the incidence rates of interest
a) Dolichol
b) ceramide
c) dermatan sulfate
d) hyaluronic acid
a) host CHO for glycoprotein synthesis
b) lipid precursor to which sugars are added to form gangliosides and galactocerebrosides
c and d) glycosaminoglycan chains that form proteoglycans
Cytokine responsible for macrophage's intracellular killing
Ctyokine responsible for cachexia of chronic inflammation
Cytokine produced by fibroblasts that inhibits viral replication
Cytokine produced by leukocytes that inhibits viral replication
What is desmoplasia?
Excessive fibrous tissue formation in the sroma of a tumor (benign). If they removed an invasive ductal carcinoma they may find it as densely fibrotic tissue adjacent to the excision
Define anaplasia
severe loss of cell differentiation and tumor oganization (much more aggressive than well-differentiated counterparts)
Define dysplasia
Atypical cellular proliferation (but not as severe as cancer or even carcinoma in situ).
Describe the innervation of the superficial peroneal nerve (aka musculocutaneous nerve)
dorsum of the foot (except the 1st web space, innervated by the deep peroneal n. and the medial and lateral borders of the foot, innervated by the saphenous and sural nerves, respectively). It is a branch of the common peroneal nerve and it also innervated the peroneus longus and peroneus brevis mm.