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105 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
What is different about reproduction from all other functions of the body
reproduction is not needed to sustain individual life
What is a clone?
a genetically identical cell or organism produced through asexual reproduction
a genetically identical cell or organism produced through asexual reproduction
what is binary fission?
the process of prokaryotes dividing in two
the process of prokaryotes dividing in two
binary fission
how does hydra reproduce?
how does a flatworm reproduce?
What are the types of asexual reproduction
binary fission, budding, fragmentation, vegetative reproduction
what is vegetative reproduction
asexual reproduction in plants
how does vegetative reproduction work?
plants grow runners which grow along the ground and grow roots forming new plants
How many chromosomes do humans have?
Cells that carry a double set of chromosomes
what is a cell with just one set of chromosomes called?
for humans what is n?
for humans what is 2n?
if 2n = 8 how many chromosomes should you draw?
4 pairs
what are two chromosomes with the same characteristics caused?
what is the exception to homologous pairs?
sex cells
What is the purpose of homologus pairs?
to produce variation among species
what are somatic cells?
body cells
what is another name for body cells?
somatic cells
what is a sex cell called when it does not contain all chromosomes and its purpose it to join with another haploid?
what is the female gamete?
how does fertilization work?
the nuclei of the female and male gametes fuse to corm a zygote
what is a zygote
a diploid fertilized egg
a diploid fertilized egg
In fungi and some plants, what kind of cells are formed by meiosis?
what are prokaryotic cell walls made out of?
lipids carbohydrates and protein
describe the dna in a prokaryotic cell
one chromosome made of double stranded dna.
Chromosome is in the nucleoid which is attached to the plasma membrane
ALso contains DNA in plasmids (also attached to plasma membrane)
what is the nucloid?
the area in the prokaryotic cell which contains the dna and is attached to the cell membrane
what are plasmids
small circular dna molecules attached to the plasma membrane
what are the types of prokaryotes
Coccus, Bascillus, Spirillum
what are the shapes of prokaryotes?
rod, sphere, corkscrew
what are flagella?
whiplike expensions that help propel the prokaryote
what are flagella made of?
What is an orgaelle
any part of a eukaryotic cell that has its own structure and function and is enclosed by a membrane
What are cell walls made of
What is the nucleus in a eukaryotic cell?
the cells genetic control center
what is the genetic control center in a eukaryotic cell?
the nucleus
what surrounds the nuclus?
nuclear membrane or nuclear envelope
what is the nuclear envelope?
the membrane that surrounds the nucleus
How is the DNA organized in the nucleus?
single long dna molecule wrapped around a series of protein spools
what is the nucleoli?
the drops of concentrated RNA within the nucleus
what is the cytoplasm?
everything within the cell but outside the nucleus
What is contained in the cytoplasm?
the organelles and cytosol
what is cytosol?
protein rich semi-fluid material that surrounds and bathes the organelles
What is the cytoskeleton?
protein skeleton which allows the cells to move and change shape
what is the cytoskeleton's function with respect of the organelles
has the ability to move organelles around or hold them in place
what is the cytoskeleton made out of?
hollow microtubes, microfiliments, intermediate filaments
how thick are hollow microtubes?
25 nm
how thick are microfiliments?
5 nm
how thick are intermediates?
10 nm
where are ribosomes?
scattered throughout the cell; attached to the ER
what are ribosomes made out of?
RNA and protein
What do ribosomes do?
catalyze the synthesis of a cell's protein
What is the purpose of the endoplasmic reticulum
connects many of the organelles; proteins synthesized in the ribosomes pass into ER as they are formed and are transported through the ER to the places where they are needed
Where is the golgi apparatus?
at the end of the Endoplasmic reticulum
what is the structure of the golgi apparatus?
membranous sacs
what is the purpose of the Golgi apparatus?
as material passes through the compartments of the golgi apparatus it is packagedin spherical membrane enclosed vesicles
What are vesciles?
membrane enclosed spheres that appear to pinch off the Golgi apparatus
What is the purpose of vesciles?
they can fuse with the plasma membrane and release their contents outside of the cell, or to other organelles
What are the components of the internal membrane system?
the ER, the Golgi apparatus, and the vesicles
Where are lysosomes
in animal cells and some other eukaryotes
What are Lysosomes
special vesicles that contain enzymes that break down the cell's old macromolecules.
Which thing within an cell fuses with the cell membrane letting material pass in and out?
Where are vacoules present?
in plant cells
what are vacoules?
vesicles that enlarge as the cell matures
What do vacoules contain?
water, organic acids, digestive enzymes, salts, pigments
What are the two organelles that are involved in energy reactions
mitochondria (animals) and chloroplasts (plants)
What are the power plants of the cell?
What is ATP
the storage of energy in animals
What are centrioles
tubular structures in cells of animals and some algae and fungi that participate in cell reproduction
What is the shape of centrioles
cylindrical bundles of microtubes
What are the difference between flagella in eukaryotic cells and prokaryotic cells
the flagella in eukaryotic cells are surrounded by the plasma membrane and the flagella in prokaryotic cells stick outside the plasma membrane
how do flagella move?
enzymes in microtubes provide energy for motion
What are cilia
short flagella
what is the purpose of cilia?
to move the cell, to move material alongside a cell
Why are loud noises bad for the ear?
break of the cilia in the ear
What does differentiation do?
creates different cells that have individual functions and appearances
What is a specialized mass or layer of cells called?
what are different tissues organized into?
How does the transport system in plants work?
takes waters and minerals from the roots to where they are need in the leaves. Also caries food produced by the leaves in photosynthesis to other parts of the plant
Why are systems necessary in multicellular organisms?
1. Because of the division of labor among cells
2. individual cells cannot work together without coordination and regulation
3. cells do not come into contact with the outside environment
What are the levels of structure in the biosphere from largest to smallest
Biosphere, ecosystem, community, population, organism, organ system, organ, tissue, cell, organelle, macromolecule, molecule, atom, subatomic particle
What is eukaryotic cell division called?
the cell cycle
Why do cells want to divide
so that it will have a better ratio of surface area to volume
What is the purpose of mitosis?
replace dead cells; growth; reproduction in unicellular organisms
What is the period between cell divisions called?
How are chromosomes structured when the cell is in interphase?
chromosomes are chomatin which is unvisible in the nucleus
what are the phases of the cell cycle?
G1, S, G2, M
What are cells when the are in G0?
what is R?
the restriction point at which cells must continue the cell cycle and must divide
why is it hard to repair damage to the brain or spiral colum?
Because these cells rarely divide so the new cells can not be produced to be in place of the injured cells
What happens during G1?
cells grow and synthesized RNA, macromolecules and proteins and prepare for either the synthesis or mitosis phase
What happens during synthesis?
the DNA of each chromosome replicates to form an identical set of chromosomes
What happens during G2?
cell synthesizes RNA and proteins in preparation for mitosis
What happens in mitosis?
the nucleus divides in two
what happens during cytokinesis?
the whole cell divides in two
what is it called when the whole cell divides in two?
What is the chemical formula for what mitochondria do?
C6H12O6+O2----> CO2+H2O+energy
What is the chemical formula for what chloroplasts do?
What are the advantages to asexual reproduction
only one organism, faster
what are the disadvantages to asexual reproduction
get all of one parents genes so if they had a problem it would be passed on; less advanced organisms because no natural selection
Why do cells have internal membranes?
Protection, division of labor
what do all cells have in common?
DNA, cytoplasm, cell membrane, ribosomes