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52 Cards in this Set

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How does the design of a typeface affect the legibility?
The design of a
typeface directly affects legibility; the design of the typeface determines
that an h can be distinguished from an n, or a c from an o, etc.
Does a designer have more control over legibility or readability?
A
designer has more control over readability because they have the ability to
decide on tracking, line length, leading, etc.
How does the selection of a font affect the message?
The selection of
font can either enhance the message or it can contradict or undercut the
message.
What is expressive type?
Expressive type is type that may be hand drawn
or hewn to convey an emotional content.
What is active type?
Active type is type on a path that is irregular;
type that is not straight.
What does contrast in type mean?
Contract in type means that contrast of
stroke weights, structure and point size.
Which is easier to read, flush left, or flush right body copy, and why?
Flush left copy is the easiest to read, because we are the most accustomed to
it, and because there is a consistent line beginning point.
Which is easier to read, reversed copy, or black type on white paper?
And why?
Black type on white paper is the easiest to read because it is what we
are most accustomed to and because the type visually looks larger to our eyes
than reversed type does.
When using shades of gray in type, how far apart should the percentages
be to assure optimum readability?
The percentage of gray needs to be between
40 and 50% between text and the background.
How does the audience for your piece affect type decisions for body
copy? give examples.
The audience can affect the selection of a font for a large
x-height, heavy stroke width and large point size, especially if the audience
is senior citizens or very young readers. Yuo might also select a serif font
for older audiences who learned to read serif faces, and sans serif for younger
audiences who learned to read sans serif.
What is the advantage of designing with a full family of fonts?
When
designing with the full family of a font, you can create typographic interest and
syncopation on the page with different weight, italic, different tracking,
caps and small caps, yet still maintain a typographic harmony to the overall
piece.
What is typographic hierarchy?
Typographic hierarchy refers to the type
on the page being read in order of the largest and darkest first and so on
down in descending order.
Why is it important for designers to understand typographic hierarchy?
Type designer shave to understand typographic hierarchy so that they can
emphasize certain words or text on the page more than others,
How can a designer use leading to create the effect of rhythm on the
page?
Variation in leading on the page, some tight and some loose can create a
visual rhythm on the page.
How can white space be used effectively in type design?
White space can
be used to create a sense of vast open space; it can be used to show
closeness; it can give a reader’s eyes a place to rest; it can show a connection
between separate elements.
What are stand firsts?
Stand firsts are when the first line of text in
an article is set in bold, or italics, or all caps or small caps to entice the
reader into reading the article.
How can rules, dingbats and directionals be used creatively in design?
They can be used to separate area of text, to direct the reader’s eye to
something important, they can be used in frames and screened.
How can varying the weights of type be a creative element in design?
Varying the weights of type will give different emphasis to different sections of the type and can be used for emphasis.
How can textured type be used creatively in design?
Textured type can
be used to reinforce a concept of a surface in a headline, initial cap or a
screened word.
How can you use type as illustration in design?
Text type can be shaped
into a shape; headlines can swirl or be scrawled or float or appear to vibrate
to illustrate.
When are en dashes used in copy?
En dashes are used to show the word to,
as in 4–6.
When are em dashes used in copy?
Em dashes are used to attribute a quote
to an author, and when there are dashes in sentences in text.
How do paragraph indents relate to line length?
Paragraph indents should
be longer as the line length is longer; and shorter with a short column width.
What are prime marks?
Prime marks are straight quotes that are used to indicate feet or inches.
How do they differ from curly quotes?
Prime marks do not have a front
and back or 66 and 99 version, they are straight.
How does an ellipsis differ from three periods?
An ellipsis is more
closely spaced than three periods and will not give as great a break in the text
as period space period, etc.
What is an ampersand?
An ampersand is the and symbol &.
How should AM and PM be handled in copy?
AM and PM should always be set
as small caps.
What is the difference between hard and soft return?
A hard return will
give you a paragraph indent; a soft return will simply return you to the left
margin. Hard returns are used when transitioning to a new paragraph; soft
returns are used to insert hyphens or to get rid of bad breaks.
How should type align under a bullet?
Under a bullet, type that runs
onto a second line ( called runovers) should be flush with the text next to the
bullet. Text following a bullet always is preceded by a space.
What do you do to the title of a book in copy for emphasis?
Italicize
the title of a book in text for emphasis; never bold it.
When do you use bold in body copy?
Use bold copy only in
callouts—followed by a definition.
When do you have to be aware of rivers in body copy?
You have to be
aware of rivers in justified copy because the word spaces have been adjusted to
make the right side of the column flush.
What are rivers?
Rivers are enlarged word spaces that align vertically
through a column of type; they are undesirable and distracting for the reader.
What are orphans?
Orphans are when either the first or last line of a
paragraph is separated in a different column from the other lines of the
paragraph. The worst kind of orphan is when one line of a paragraph falls onto a whole new page.
What is the rag of the type?
The rag of type in F/L copy refers to the
relative lengths of the right line endings; you do not want the lines to be too disparate in length, they should be roughly the same length and not vary
widely.
Why do you want to avoid two hyphens in a row?
You can add a soft return
before one of the hyphenated word to flow that text onto the next line,
change the tracking, or add a small word to one of the lines with the hyphen.
What is shaped body copy?
Shaped body copy is when the text forms the silhouette of an image, such as a crescent moon or a wedding cake.
What does setting type solid mean?
Setting type solid means that the
point size of the text and the point size of the leading are the same, meaning
that there is very little white space between lines. Set solid type is
particularly hard to read.
What are dingbats?
Dingbats are another term for small decorative type
elements.
What are coins?
Coins are decorative type elements that conform to
corners and are designed as mirror images of each other.
What are flourishes?
Flourishes are scroll like delicate graceful
curving line decorations used in type layouts.
What are fleurons?
Fleurons are decorative type elements that are
designed based on natural motifs such as berries, leaves, etc.
What are fillets?
Fillets are decorative lines that often look engraved
used to separate areas of type.
What are cartouches?
Cartouches are decorative frames that are elaborate
and intricate.
What are borders?
Borders are geometric designs that are made up of
repeated elements that can be made into a border around type or images.
What are pointer ornaments?
Pointer ornaments include arrows, hands and triangles that are used to direct the reader’s attention to an element on the
page.
What are paragraph divider ornaments?
Paragraph divider ornaments are
square decorative designs that are sometimes used in justified copy to indicate the end of a paragraph. These dividers are only used with 2–3 paragraphs of
body copy.
What is the grid?
The grid is an underlying structure that can help
designers in the placement of elements on the page for unity and balance; however
the grid can also be broken ad disregarded all together in design.
What is clotheslining body copy?
Clotheslining of body copy is when the
top lines of adjacent columns of text align, but the bottoms of the columns
run different lengths.
Why should type base align across columns?
Type should base align across
columns so that it is not distracting for the reader.
How should white space be used in a layout?
It should be placed more to
the perimeter than the center, and white space is used to balance other
elements on the page and to provide a visual rest for the viewer.