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92 Cards in this Set

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denotes the upright, vertical position of a letter, as opposed to a slanted, italic form; type fonts based on the design of ancient Roman capitals.
Roman:
denotes letters slanted to the right; distinct from Roman letters in their form, construction and terminals; used for emphasis and for the titles of complete works, such as books, movies, plays, etc.
Italic
capital letters, historically placed in the upper of the two
drawers used in hand composition of lead type; also called majuscule.
Uppercase
small letterforms, originating from the semi-uncial lettering
style; includes ascenders and descenders. The name comes from the placement
of the letterpress case of small letters in the lower of the two wooden type
cases used by hand compositors; the small letters were placed so that they were
within hands’ reach, also called lc, or miniscule.
Lowercase
the straight, vertical, or main diagonal stroke of a
character; the thicker of the strokes of a character.
Stem stroke
the secondary stroke of a letter, usually thinner than
the stem.
Hairline Stroke
a stroke crossing the main terminals of a character and extending beyond the main stroke; believed to be residuals of chisel-cut letters in ancient Rome.
serif
the transition between stem and serif strokes.
Bracketing
the end of a stroke of a letter that is parallel to
the baseline; usually seen on sans serif fonts.
Horizontal Terminal:
the end of a letter stroke that is 90° to the
baseline.
Vertical Terminal:
the end of a stem stroke of a character; different types:
sheared, straight, acute, horizontal, ball, convex, concave, rounded, flared,
hooked, tapered, and pointed.
Terminal
the graceful, central curving stroke of the letter “s,” which is
bolder in fonts with stroke differentiation of stem and hairline strokes.
Spine
a half serif at the end of the horizontal arms of the “E, F, L, T
or Z.”
Beak
the enclosed counter form of the lowercase “e”; it can be a fully or partially enclosed counter.
Eye
a curved stroke that is continuous with a straight stem not a
bowl; examples: “C,” “G,” bottom of j”, g, t, f and u,” as well as the top
of the “a.”
Shoulder
a horizontal stroke that connects two other strokes of the letter; a ________ is intersected on both ends.
Crossbar
a horizontal stroke that cuts across the stem of a letter as in a “t”, or “f”
Cross stroke:
this is the line on which the bases of all the letters align.
Baseline
This line defines the height of the body of the lowercase letters. The lowercase x is used to determine this line because it meets the _________ at two flat areas.
Waistline
the line that the caps and ascenders touch.
(Sometimes these two lines are the same; sometimes, as in Old Style fonts, the
caps are smaller than the ascenders.)
Ascender line or Cap Line
the line which the descenders of a font touch.
Descender line
the distance from the base line to the x-height line
X height or Body Height:
is measured from the ascender line to the descender line. It
includes the body of the letter as well as the ascenders and descenders.
Point size:
height of the capitals of a font at a given size; does
not include the descender length.
Cap height
a half serif at the end of the curved strokes of a “C, G or S.”
Barb
upper point of letters with an ascending pointed form–this point
usually extends past the cap line; examples of different types: rounded,
pointed, hallowed, flat, extended.
Apex
the line along which the bases of the letters align.
Baseline
the small terminal stroke (sometimes rounded or tear-dropped)
projecting from the top of lowercase Roman “g, r, f, and a.”
Ear
the downward-angled stroke that is attached to the stem on one end and is free on the other terminal end.
Leg
the horizontal or diagonal upward-sloping stroke that attaches to
the stem and is free on one end.
Arm
the stroke that connects the loop of the lowercase “g” to the
bowl.
Link
the lower portion of the Roman lowercase “g”
distinguished from the bowl as a flourish rather than a necessary part of the letter.
Loop open & closed:
a downward sloping short stroke or arc of a character starting from the stem and ending free, as on an uppercase “Q.” Sometimes, the legs of uppercase “R” and “K” are referred to as___________
Tail
the nodule descending from the vertical stroke of an uppercase
“G”; it connects the straight to the curved stroke but is separate from both.
Spur
the downward pointing, free-ending juncture of two angled stems;
the point touches just below the baseline. Examples of different types of
vertices: rounded, pointed, hallow flat, extended, found on the letters “w” and
“v.”
Vertex
the interior space formed by the joint of two strokes of a character, as in a “K, L, M, N, V, W, X, Y, or Z;” an acute _____ is less than
90°, obtuse crotch is more than 90°.
Crotch
the curved stroke that makes a partially enclosed space
within a character; the curve does not meet with the stem completely.
Open Bowl
the curved stroke that makes a fully enclosed space within
a character; the curved stroke meets the stem; for
example in an “a, b, B, d, D, g, p, P, R, or q.”
Closed Bowl:
the enclosed area formed within a bowl of a letter; for
example, in an “a, b, d, g, o, p, or q.”
Counter
the partially enclosed space within a
character that is open on one end; for example, the white space in a “c, h, m, n, u,
v, w, or y.”
Partially enclosed Counter
the part of the lowercase letters “b, d, f, h, k, l, and t”
extending
above the x-height line.
Ascender
the part of the lowercase letters “g, j, p, q, y and cap J,”
which extend below the baseline.
Descender
Terminals on lowercase a, c, f, r that are a soft
curved teardrop shape.
Teardrop terminals:
Terminals on lowercase a, c, f, r that are a tight,
clean circle.
Ball Terminals:
a decorative flourish used to accent a character, usually at the beginning or end of a word. _____ can be curled, twisted, or graceful extensions added to letters to call attention to it.
Swash
the small swash-like strokes used on calligraphic fonts to add
flourish to the vertical strokes.
Flags
the direction of the thick strokes and curves in a typeface is called either biased, oblique or slanted. The biased _____ of italic faces is usually at a greater angle than Roman faces.
Oblique stress:
the direction of the thickened area in a curved stroke of a Roman face initially caused by a flat pen held at a constant angle when making a curved stroke. The thickest point is the “maximum _____.”
Vertical stress
Describe the difference between platen offset printing and rotary offset printing
platen offset uses a flat platen that is screws down the paper onto the inked type on the flat pressbed to release the ink onto the paper. Rotary offset printing uses a cylinder for the inking and to hold the paper that rolls over the flat type on the press bed.
What is a California job case?
It is the case used in the days of
handset type where the type was sorted into little compartments based on the
letters, and these compartments were arranged based on frequency of use.
Where did the terms upper and lowercase come from?
These terms came from the days of handset type, the uppercase is where the capitals were stored, and the lower case was where the small letters were stored.
What is the platform on a piece of lead type?
The platform is the flat
area from which the raised letter projects.
What is the set width in lead type?
The width of the character, which
includes a hair of lead on either side of each letter.
What is type high? What does the term mean?
.918 inches.

It means the height of letterpress type so that it will printy; anything lower will not print; anything higher will rip through the page.
Name two advantages of cold type over hot type:
Cold type allows
extensive kerning of type, use of textures in type, enlargement as large as the lense
allows, and does not require casting of type in metal or carving in wood.
Describe dot matrix printing:
a series of pins arranged in a square hit
against an inking ribbon to create the letters on the paper.
Why are daisy wheel printers in some ways similar to manual typewriters?
Daisy wheel printers are impact printers where a raised letter is pressed against a ribbon as in old manual typewriters.
How does the ink get onto a page in bubble jet printers?
The ink is
spurted out through a jet when the bubble is heated and expanded and forces the
ink out of the nozzle.
What does the laser do in a laser printer?
The laser draws the image
onto the drum.
What does the fuser unit do in a laser printer?
The fuser unit heats and
melts the plastic in the toner onto the paper.
What are folders used for on the computer?
To organize documents that
are related, i.e.: to hold a document its fonts and placed photos and art
together.
What is PostScript?
It is the language of the printers; most fonts are
written in it so that they will print more easily.
How can you tell the icon of a printer font from a screen font?
Printer
font often has lines on a page; or logo of type designer; screen fonts are
kept in a suitcase.
Which fonts, printer or screen, are found in a suitcase?
Screen fonts
are found in a suitcase.
How do you get a sample view of the font?
Double click on a screen font
document.
Why do different fonts have different icons?
Printer fonts carry the
logo of the company that created them.
What are considerations of computer-readable type?
The B, 8 and 3 have
to be clearly discernible in computer read type.
What is WYSIWYG?
This means What You See is What You Get and refers to
whether output from a printer is accurately represented on the screen.
How do you gauge the quality of a font designed for the computer?
The italic version of the font must be designed separately and not just be a sheared version of the Roman font.
Describe the trends in the design of computer type and compare to a
parallel era in history:
Computer fonts are proliferating at a dizzying rate
similar to the proliferation of decorative fonts in the Victorian era.
What does RAM stand for?
Random Access Memory
What does ROM stand for?
Read Only Memory
How can you tell the icon of a document from an application?
The icon of a document looks like a piece of paper with corner folded down, and it has a version of the logo on it; the icon of an application looks like the logo of the program.
What is the Hard Drive in a computer?
The hard drive is the place where
programs and documents are saved.
What is the chip in the computer?
The chip is the processor in the
computer that processes the instructions sent to it by a program or operating
system; the faster the chip speed the faster the computer operates.
What is the chip in the computer?
The chip is the processor in the
computer that processes the instructions sent to it by a program or operating
system; the faster the chip speed the faster the computer operates.
What is the disk drive in the computer?
The Disk Drive is the part of
the computer that accepts and read a zip disk.
What is the motherboard of the computer?
The mother board of the
computer is where all of the pieces snap into and has circuits that connect them,
such as the chip, the RAM, the CD drive and the disk drive.
What is a printer font used for?
The printer font allows the font to be
read and understood by the printer; it is the postscript version of the font.
What is a screen font used for?
The screen font is the part of the font
that allows for the display of the type on the screen.
What is a family of fonts?
A family of fonts means all the weights and
italics of a particular font, such as Bodoni.
What is Adobe Type Reunion?
Adobe Type Reunion groups all the weights of
the fonts in a side menu on your font list.
What is Ethernet?
Ethernet is a networking protocol that allows multiple
computers to print from the same printer, and allows computers to read
information from each other’s hard disks.
What is AppleTalk?
Apple Talk is a phone wire based networking protocol
that isn’t as efficient as ethernet, where multiple computers are daisy
chained to a common printer.
What is Encapsulated PostScript?
Encapsulate Post Script is a format for
saving documents that “freezes” them, allowing the document to be read, but
not adjusted.
This usually also allows documents to be printed without any complications
from a postscript printer.
What is the Chooser?
The chooser is the software that allows computer
users on a network to select which printer they want to print to.
What is the Page Setup?
Page setup shows printing options such as orientation in landscape or portrait and sometimes allows users to adjust margins.
What are Printer Drivers?
Printer Drivers are pieces of software that
are specific to a certain model and manufacturer of printers and can be
operating system sensitive that allow the operating system to recognize the printer.
What is the Finder?
The Finder is the piece of the operating system that
keeps track of where every document and software on the computer is stored.
What are crop marks?
Crop marks are lines placed just outside the corners of a piece to show the printer where to trim the piece.
What are registration marks?
Registration marks are bull's-eye marks on
the outer trim edges of a piece that allow the printers to register multiple
colors on one printing sheet.
What are bleeds?
Bleeds are the 1/8” to 1/4” overlap needed when an
image or type goes to the edge of the page to allow for slight shifts in the
trimming, to prevent a white gap at the edge of the page.