Study your flashcards anywhere!

Download the official Cram app for free >

  • Shuffle
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Alphabetize
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Front First
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Both Sides
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
  • Read
    Toggle On
    Toggle Off
Reading...
Front

How to study your flashcards.

Right/Left arrow keys: Navigate between flashcards.right arrow keyleft arrow key

Up/Down arrow keys: Flip the card between the front and back.down keyup key

H key: Show hint (3rd side).h key

A key: Read text to speech.a key

image

Play button

image

Play button

image

Progress

1/63

Click to flip

63 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
  • 3rd side (hint)
Thalamus
1. Where is it
2. What does it do (3 things)
1. Forebrain

2.
a) Sensory transmission to the brain
b)motor activity
c) Memory Processing
Damage to Thalamus (1)
Korsakoff syndrome (thyamine deficiency)
Hypothalamus
1. Where is it
2. What does it do (2 things)
1. Forebrain

2.Homeostasis
Sets the alarm reaction of the GAS
GAS
A. What is it
B. What are the stages (3)
C. What stimulates it
A) Stress system - General Alarm System

B) 3 stages
1. Alarm reaction
2. Resistence
3. Exhaustion

C) Hypothalmus
Hippocampus
1. Where is it (specifically)?
2. What does it do (1)
3. Implicit or explicit?
1. Part of the limbic system of the forebrain

2.
a)Consolidates STM to LTM "declarative memories"

b)Explicit memory
Explicit memory
Requires conscious recollection
Pons
1. Where is it?
2 What does it do (2 things)
1. Hindbrain

2.
a) Movement between R and L side of the body

b) Connects 2 halves of the cerebellum
Medulla
1. Where is it
2. What does it do
3. Damage
4. Implicit or explicit?
1. Hindbrain

2. Breathing, heartbeat, digestion, blood pressure

3. Damage is fatal

4. Implicit memory
Limbic system
1. Where is it?
2. What's in it?
3. Function
1. Forebrain
2. Hippocampus and Amygdala
3. Mediating emotions
Amygdala
1. Where is it
2. What does it do (5 things)
1. Part of the limbic system in the forebrain

2.
a)Motivational and emotional activities
b)Fear conditioning
c) Adds emotions to memories
d) Learning about rewards and punishment
e) helps recall emotionally charged experiences
PNS
1. What is it
2. Parts
1. Peripheral Nervous System
2. Somatic and Autonomic
Cerebellum
1. Where is it
2. What does it do (3)


HINT
1. Hindbrain
2.
a) Balance, posture and motor movements
b) sensorimotor learning
c)cognitive functioning
2 brain functions
Ataxia
1. What is it (3)
2. What causes it
1.
a) Loss of balance and coordination
b) slurred speech
c) severe tremors

2. Damage to the cerebellum
RAS
1. what is it
2. Where is it
3. Functions (3)
1. Reticular Activating System
2. Midbrain
3. Consciousness, arousal and wakefulness
Corpus callosum: What does it do (1)
Connects info from the L and R hemispheres to prevent "split brains"
Contralateral representation
The L hemisphere of the brain controls the actions on the R side of the body, and vice versa
3 Left hemisphere functions
1.Positive emotions
2.Written and Spoken Language
3.Analytical Thinking
4 Right hemisphere functions
1. Spatial relationships
2. Negative emotions
3. Creativity
4. Facial recognition
Hemispheric Specialization
The L side of the brain is usually dominant
The R side is non dominant
Primary motor cortex
1. Memory types (2)
2. Location
1.
a)Sensorimotor memory
b)Implicit memory

2. Frontal lobe
Frontal Lobe lesions cause (2)
Pseudodepression and pseudopsychopathy
Broca's area
1. Function
2. Location (specifically)
1. Speech production
2. Premotor cortex in the frontal lobe
Wernicke's area
1. Function
2. Location (hemisphere)
1. Speech comprehension
2. L Temporal lobe (dominant hemisphere)
Prefrontal cortex
1. Functions (3)
2. Location
1.
a)Emotions
b) STM and episodic memory
c) executive functioning

2. Frontal lobe
1. Temporal lobe memory functions (3)
2. Damage
1. LTM encoding, storage and retreival

2. Anterograde and retrograde amnesia
Occipital lobe location
Near back of the brain
Primary Visual cortex
1. Function
2. Location
1. Visual perception, recognition and memory

2. Occipital lobe near the back of the brain
Somatic NS
1. Function
2. Location
1. Voluntary activities
2. PNS
Autonomic NS
1. Includes
2. Location
1. Parasympathetic and Sympathetic NS

2. PNS
Parasympathetic vs Sympathetic
Paraspympathetic: rest relaxation and digestion

Sympathetic: Arousal, energy, flight or fight
Anterograde and retrograde amnesia are caused by damage to the_________
Hippocampus

(memory functions)
Hindbrain parts (3)
Medulla
Pons
Cerebellum
Reticular formation
1. Function
2. Location
1. Affects REM sleep
2. Part of the RAS in the midbrain
Acetylcholine functions
1. PNS
2. CNS (3)
1. Causes muscles to contract

2.
a)REM sleep
b) regulating the sleep-wake cycle
c) memory
1. Degeneration of ACh cells causes one thing that is not an anticholinergic symptom.

2.How/Where?
1. Memory Loss

2. Reduces communicating with the hippocampus
Catecholamines
3 types
Norepinephrine
Epinephrine
Dopamine
4 Norepinephrine functions


HINT
1. Mood
2. Heartbeat
3. Blood flow
4. Responses to stress
3 are physical
Low levels of norepinephrine and dopamine cause (1)
depression
High activity in dopamine synapses causes (2)
schizo and Tourettes
Dopmaine's primary function
Movement
Dopamine degeneration (1)
Parkinsonian symptoms (L-dopa)
Excessive Dopamine
Reinforcing actions of stimulants
Cocaine and dopamine
Cocaine blocks dopamine reuptake SO it increases the dopamine leves in the synapses
Elevated serotonin causes (2)
Schizo and autism
Low serotonin causes (6)
Depression, PTSD, OCD, aggression, mania and migraines
What causes motor symptoms of Huntingtons (1)
Degeneration of GABA cells in the basal ganglia
Glutamate functions (2)
Learning and memory, esp LTM formation (long term potentiation)
4 Prefrontal Cortex functions

(hint)
Self-Awareness
Emotion
Executive functioning
Memory
SEEM
Prefrontal cortex damage (2)
Planning and decision making problems
Temporal lobe damage (3)
1. auditory agnosia and hallucinations

2. Anterograde and retrograde amnesia

3. Changes in sexuality
Wernicke's aphasia AKAs (3)
Receptive aphasia
Sensory A
Impressive A
Wernicke's aphasia speech problems
Speech is fluid but abnormal
Visual agnosia
Can't recognize objects
Prosopagnosia
Can't recognize faces
Somatosensory cortex
1. Function
2. Location
1. Pressure, temperature and pain

2. Parietal lobe
Apraxia
1: where would it occur
2. what is it
Parietal lobe
Damage- Inability to do skilled motor movements
Asomatognosia
Can't recognize your own body
Anosognosia
Can't recognize your own symptoms on your L side
3 types of memory in the prefrontal cortex
STM, espically working memory
Episodic memory
Prespective memory
Basal Ganglia
1. Functions (2)
2. Location
3. Implicit or explicit?
1.
a) Voluntary movements
b) sensorimotor learning

2. Forebrain

3. Implicit memory
2 Spinal cord functions
1. Carries info between the brain and the PNS

2. Coordinates activites of the L and R sides of the body
4 Spinal cord parts and functions
1. Cervical
2.Thoracic- trunk, arms, hands
3.Lumbar- thigh, hip, leg
4. Sacral- lower leg and foot
4 GABA functions

HINT
Sleep
Eating
Anxiety disorders
Seizures
SEAS
physiological