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256 Cards in this Set

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What is Project Quality Management?
Project quality management is concerned with the management of the project and the product of the project.
The project Quality Management Processes include:
Quality Planning
Perform Quality Assurance
Perform Quality Control
Quality management and project management have similar characteristics: What are they
-Customer satisfaction
- Prevention
-Management responsibility
-Plan-do-check-act
-Kaizen technology
-Marginal analysis
Customer satisfaction
The project must satisfy the customer requirements by delivering what it promised in order to satisfy the needs of the customer. The PMBOK puts it as “conformance to requirements” and “fitness for use.”
Prevention
- Quality is planned into a project, not inspected in. It is always more cost-effective to prevent mistakes than to correct them.
Management responsibility
The project team must work towards the quality goal, but management must provide the needed resources to deliver on the quality promises.
Plan-do-check-act -
Deming, arguably the world’s leader in quality management theory thanks to his management methods implemented in Japan after World War II, set the bar with his “plan-do-check-act” approach to quality management. This approach is similar to the project management processes every project passes through.
Kaizen technology
Kaizen is a quality management philosophy of applying continuous small improvements to reduce costs and ensure consistency or project performance
Marginal analysis
Marginal analysis studies the cost of the incremental improvements to a process or product and compares it against the increase in revenue made from the improvements. For example, the price of the added feature may cost the company $7.50 per unit, but the amount of gained sales per year because of the improvement will meet or exceed the cost of the improvement.
The PMI Perspective on Quality
-Customer specifications determine what the expected level of quality is.
-Project quality management also is concerned with the management of the project and the product of the project. Project managers must provide quality objectives for project management activities.
Quality concerns for the PM could be things such as:
-Overworking the project team in order to complete the project. This may result in unacceptable work, decline in team morale, and the slow, steady destruction of the project team’s willingness to work.
-Hurrying to complete the project work by speeding through quality inspections. This can result in unacceptable deliverables.
What affect has ISO got on quality
The Quality Management System standards created by ISO are meant to certify the processes and the system of an organization and not the product or service itself. ISO 9000 standards do not certify the quality of the product or service.
Important Factors in Quality Management
-Customer Satisfaction
Prevention before Inspection
-Management Responsibility – success requires effort from every member of the team. -Management must provide the resources
-Continuous Improvement – Plan-Do-Act is the basis for quality Improvement.
Why Quality is Important
-Greater chance of Acceptance the first time
-Less Re-Work
-Less costly in the long run
-Quality checks produce verifiable documentation that can be used as historical information
Plan quality before work is performed
-Quality planning can confirm the pre-existence of quality-or the need for quality improvements.
-Quality is planned into a project, not inspected in.
-Quality control uses inspections to prove the quality standards of the projects deliverable .
Quality - Planned or inspected
Quality is planned into a project, not inspected in. I nspection is a part of project quality management but inspection is not generally considered the best path to improved quality.
Who is affected by Quality?
-The customer – If the quality of either the product or a process is poor, it cost the customer time.
-The product - When quality is not built in, the product of the project will suffer.
-The project processes – When quality does not exist, the execution process is not complete and will need to be re-planned
-The project team – If quality is not well planned for and defined in the scope, the project team will perform much re-work.
What is the difference between quality and grade
Quality is the sum of the characteristics of a product that allow it to meet the demands or expectations of the project.
Grade, according to the PMBOK
is a category or rank given to entities having the same functional use but different technical characteristics.”
Low grade v low quality
Know that low quality is always a problem, but low grade may not be. Depending on the requirements of the customer, low grade may be completely acceptable, but low quality never is.
There are several quality management philosophies:
-Total Quality Management (TQM)
-Kaizen
-Marginal analysis
Total Quality Management (TQM)
The organization strives for constant improvement for products and business practices.
Kaizen
The organization applies small changes to products and processes to improve consistency, reduce costs, and provide overall quality improvements.
Marginal analysis
The cost of the quality is not greater than the increased sales because of the level of quality implemented. Ideally, the revenue generated because of the quality improvements far exceeds the cost of the quality.
the values of the four sigma’s in the table shown here
v Value
v Percent Correct

v +/- 1 sigma
v 68.26 percent

v +/- 2 sigma
v 95.46 percent

v +/- 3 sigma
v 99.73 percent

v +/- 6 sigma
v 99.99 percent
PMBOK defines quality planning as
identifying which quality standards are relevant to the project and determining how to satisfy them”. A key output of the planning process should be the quality management plan for the project.
Cost-Benefit Analysis
This is the process of determining the pros and cons of implementing any process, product, or activity. When it comes to project management, cost-benefit is concerned with the benefits of quality management activities versus the costs of the quality management activities.
Benefit

Benefits should always outweigh costs
Completing quality work increases productivity because shoddy work does not have to be redone. When work is completed correctly the first time, as expected, the project does not have to spend additional funds to redo the work.
Costs

Benefits should always outweigh costs
Completing quality work may cost more monies than the work is worth. To deliver a level of quality beyond what is demanded costs the project additional funds. The types of quality management activities that guarantee quality may not be needed for every project.
Benchmarking
Benchmarking involves comparing actual or planned project practices to those of other projects to generate ideas for improvement and to provide a basis by which to measure performance. Benchmarking is all about comparing this project to another. The purpose of benchmarking is to evaluate the differences between the two projects and then to make corrective actions to the current project.
Design of Experiments
The design of experiments approach relies on statistical what-if scenarios to determine what variables within a project will result in the best outcome. This approach is most often used on the product of the project, rather than the project itself.
Cost of Quality
-Cost of conformance
-Cost of nonconformance
Any cost that would not have been expended if quality were perfect contributes to the cost of quality. This includes things like re-work and failure costs.
Cost of conformance
This is the cost of completing the project work to satisfy the project scope and the expected level of quality. Examples of this cost include training, safety measures, p lanning, process control, product design validation, process validation, Quality audits, maintenance and calibration, Inspection, Field testing and other quality management activities to ensure that quality is met.
Cost of nonconformance
This is the cost of completing the project work without quality. The biggest issue here is the money lost by having to redo the project work; it’s always more cost effective to do the work right the first time. Other nonconformance costs include loss of sales, loss of customers, downtime, and corrective actions to fix problems caused by incorrect work, r ework and repair, additional material or inventory, warranty repairs and service, Complaint handling, liability judgments, product recalls, field service and costs of expediting
Exam Note: Know the outputs to Quality Planning.
Primarily that the Quality Baseline and Process Improvement Plan are issued here. The Process Improvement Plan is a subordinate to the project management plan. It includes project boundaries, process configuration, metrics and performance improvement methods.
QUALITY ASSURANCE
Quality Assurance covers all activities from design, development, production, installation, servicing and documentation. It introduced the sayings "fit for purpose" and "do it right the first time". It includes the regulation of the quality of raw materials, assemblies, products and components; services related to production; and management, production, and inspection processes
What is the main goal of QA
The main goal of QA is to ensure that the product fulfills or exceeds customer expectations.
PDCA (Plan-Do-Check-Act) approach, also known as the Shewhart cycle
PLAN
Do
Check
Actr
Plan
Establish the objectives and processes necessary to deliver results in accordance with the specifications.
Do
Implement the processes.
Check
Monitor and evaluate the processes and results against objectives and specifications and report the outcome.
Act
apply actions to the outcome for necessary improvement. This means reviewing all steps (Plan, Do, Check, Act) and modifying the process to improve it before its next implementation.
What does PMBOK say about qual assur
As defined by the PMBOK, quality assurance is fundamentally a reactive process.
Quality Audits
The process of reviewing specific data at key points of the project’s life cycle. The purpose of formative quality evaluation is to determine how the project is proceeding, and make necessary corrections.
Process Analysis
Process improvement is the activity of elevating the performance of a process, especially that of a business process with regard to its goal. Process improvement can take the form of an improvement project, or that of a process. Such a process of continuous improvement is part of organization's management processes (as opposed to business processes and support processes).
Process Analysis - What does PMBOK say
According to the PMBOK, Process analysis follows the steps outlined in the process improvement plan to identify needed improvements.
Output - Corrective actions
When the project manager and the project team want to incorporate changes into the project the quality management plan may require formal change requests and management approval. The value and importance of the change should be evident so the improvement to quality is approved and folded into the project.
QUALITY CONTROL
The PMBOK defines quality control as “monitoring specific project results to determine if they comply with relevant quality standards and identifying ways to eliminate causes of unsatisfactory performance”.
Cause and Effect Diagrams (also referred to as Fishbone Diagrams OR Ishikawa diagram )
Stimulates Thought
Help formulate hypothesis
Used in a root cause analysis
Control Charts
-performance over time
A control chart's purpose is to determine whether or not a process is stable or has predictable performance - used to show level of control in total project
Within the customer requirements are the Upper Control Limits (UCL) and the Lower Control Limits (LCL)
When an activity goes at least 7 consecutive points above or below the “Mean” it is referred to as the “Rule of Seven” and deemed out of control.
Flowcharts
Flow charts show when an action should occur. It shows how processes and actions are inter-related . The flow of work will help the PM understand where problems may occur.
Histogram
A histogram is the graphical version of a table which shows what proportion of cases fall into each of several or many specified categories. The categories are usually specified as non-overlapping intervals of some variable. The categories (bars) must be adjacent.
Pareto Diagram
A Pareto chart is a special type of bar chart where the values being plotted are arranged in descending order. Typically the left vertical axis is frequency of occurrence, but it can alternatively represent cost or other important unit of measure. The right vertical axis is the cumulative percentage of the total number of occurrences, total cost, or total of the particular unit of measure.
Pareto’s Law
80 percent of the problems come from 20 percent of the issues
What does the pareto diagram show
Pareto diagram illustrates the problems by assigned cause from smallest to largest, as shown below. The project team should first work on the largest problems first and the smaller problems later.
Scatter Diagram
visually display and compare two or more sets of related numerical data by displaying many points, each having a coordinate on a horizontal and a vertical axis.
Statistical Sampling
On the exam, know that statistical sampling uses a percentage of the results to test for quality. This process can reduce quality control cost.
Sigma
The mean in a control chart represents the expected result, while the sigma values represent the expected spread of results based on the inspection.
What is a true six sigma?
A true six sigma allows only two defects per million opportunities and the percentage to represent that value is 99.99985%. For the exam, you can go with the 99.99%.
+/- 1 sigma
68.26 percent correct
+/- 2 sigma
95.46 percent correct
+/- 3 sigma
99.73 percent correct
+/- 6 sigma
99.99 percent
correct
Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control
Quality Control refers to quality related activities associated with the creation of project deliverables. Quality control is used to verify that deliverables are of acceptable quality and that they are complete and correct. Examples of quality control activities include deliverable peer reviews and the testing process.
Quality Assurance vs. Quality Control ...2
Quality Assurance refers to the process used to create the deliverables, and can be performed by a manager, client, or even a third-party reviewer. Examples of quality assurance include process checklists and project audits.
Quality Improvement Kaizen
"to take it apart and put back together in a better way." The Japanese word for continuous improvement. The goals of kaizen include the elimination of waste (defined as "activities that add cost but do not add value"). It uses practices such as just-in-time delivery, production load leveling of amount and types, standardized work, paced moving lines, right-sized equipment, and others.
Quality Improvement Just-in-time (JIT)
JIT scheduling demands higher quality. In a JIT environment, the PM does not order inventory, such as supplies and materials, until they are needed. This improves cash flow and reduces the cost of inventory not in use. However, a lack of quality in the project may cause defects. Because of the defects, the material in use is wasted and downtime occurs. Downtime occurs because there are no additional materials on hand and the project is waiting for new materials to arrive. JIT is an inventory control approach that attempts to reduce work-in-process inventory to zero stock.
Quality Improvement Checklists
SERVE AS HISTORICAL INFO
If the project is using checklists to confirm the completion of work, then the completed checklists should become part of the project records . Some project managers require the project team member completing the checklist to initial the checklists as whole and complete.
Quality updates
The project management plan is updated to reflect changes to the quality management plan that result from changes in performing the QC process . Requested changes (additions, modifications, or deletions) to the project management plan and its subsidiary plans are processed by review and disposition through the Integrated Change Control process.
Corrective actions
When the project manager and the project team want to incorporate changes into the project the quality management plan may require formal change requests and management approval. The value and importance of the change should be evident so the improvement to quality is approved and folded into the project.
Standards and Regulations
-Standards are guidelines
-Regulations are mandatory . -Generally set forth by an outside governance
Quality Planning - input
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Project Scope Statement
Project Management Plan
Quality Planning TnT
Cost-Benefit Analysis
Benchmarking
Design of Experiments
Cost of Quality (COQ)
Additional Quality Planning Tools
Quality Planning OUtput
Quality Management Plan
Quality Metrics
Quality Checklists
Process Improvement Plan
Quality Baseline
Project Management Plan (updates)
Perform Quality Assurance
Inputs
-Quality Management Plan
-Quality Metrics
-Process Improvement Plan
-Work Performance Information
-Approved Change Requests
-Quality Control Measurements
-Implemented Change Requests
-Implemented Corrective Actions
-Implemented Defect Repair
-Implemented Preventative Actions
Perform Quality Assurance
TnT
-Quality Planning Tools and Techniques
-Quality Audits
-Process Analysis
-Quality Control Tools and Techniques
Perform Quality Assurance
Outputs
-Requested Changes
-Recommended Corrective Actions
-Organizational Process Assets (updates)
-Project Management Plan (updates)
Perform Quality Control
inputs
-Quality Management Plan
-Quality Metrics
-Quality Checklists
-Organizational Process Assets
-Work Performance Information
-Approved Change Requests
-Deliverables
Perform Quality Control
TnT
-Cause and Effect Diagram
-Control Charts
-Flowcharting
-Histogram
-Pareto Chart
-Run Chart
-Scatter Diagram
-Statistical Sampling
-Inspection
-Defect Repair Review
Perform Quality Control
Outputs
-Quality Control Measurements
-Validated Defect Repair
-Quality Baseline (updates)
-Recommended Corrective Actions
-Recommended Preventative Actions
-Requested Changes
-Recommended Defect Repair
-Organizational Process Assets
-Validated Deliverables
-Project Management Plan (updates)
Project Human Resource Management processes
-Human Resource Planning
-Acquire Project Team
-Develop Project Team
-Manage Project Team
Human Resource Planning
Identifying and documenting project roles, responsibilities, and reporting relationships, as well as creating the staffing management plan.
Acquire Project Team
Obtaining the human resources needed to complete the project.
Develop Project Team
Improving the competencies and interaction of team members to enhance project performance.
Manage Project Team
Tracking team member performance, providing feedback, resolving issues, and coordinating changes to enhance project performance.
What is Project Human Resources Management?
-Processes that organize and manage the project team
-Project Management Team (PMT) is a subset of the greater Project Team
Processes that organize and manage the project team
-Team members have assigned roles and responsibilities
-Team members sometimes referred to as Project Staff .
Project Management Team (PMT) is a subset of the greater Project Team
-PMT is responsible for Planning, Controlling and Closing
-PMT is sometimes referred to as the Core, Executive or Leadership Team
Organizational aspects that influence projects
-organizational systems
-organizational cultures and styles
-organizational structures
PROJECT MANAGER
The essential role of the project leader is to lead the project team through the project management and team processes so that they complete the project successfully. The project leader is accountable for the overall success of the project.
PROJECT MANAGER Roles
-The project leader is also referred to as the project manager. However, in a participative approach, the main role for the project manager is leadership, so we refer to him or her as a project leader. The role of the project leader is to
Provide direction to the project team.
-Lead the project team through the project management process (creating and executing the project plan).
-Obtain approvals for the project plan.
-Issue status reports on the progress of the project versus the plan.
-Respond to requests for changes to the plan.
-Facilitate the team process, which is the interpersonal process by which team members develop as a team.
-Remove obstacles for the team so they can complete the project.
-Act as the key interface with the project sponsor.
-Act as the key interface with the project customer.
-Call and run team meetings.
Issue the final project report.
PROJECT TEAM MEMBER
The project team member has an active role to play in a participatory style of managing a project. The project team member not only provides technical expertise and produces deliverables, but he or she also helps in the planning and monitoring of the project. The project team member is accountable for ensuring that his or her work contributes to the overall success of the project.
PROJECT TEAM MEMBER Roles
-Provide technical expertise.
-Provide ideas that can help the team create quality deliverables, on time and within budget.
-Ensure that his or her part of the project work gets completed on time.
-Communicate issues back to the project team.
-Participate in the project planning process.
-Interface with the suppliers for his or her area.
-Keep the boss informed on project issues, as required.
-Keep the commitment he or she makes to the project.
H-elp to keep the project on track.
-Provide updates to his or her resource manager on the status of the project.
-Help to keep the team process and content on track
SPONSOR
The sponsor is someone from management who has been designated to oversee the project, to help ensure that it satisfies both the needs of the customer and the needs of the organization. The sponsor is sometimes called the project champion. The sponsor makes sure that the project leader has the resources, training, support, and cooperation he or she needs to get the job done. The sponsor is accountable for the success of the project leader. What happens if you don’t have a sponsor? Then your boss or the project customer, if that customer is inside the organization, will need to act as the sponsor. The sponsor connects the project to the needs of management. It’s very risky to start a project without one. The role of the sponsor is to
Sponser roles
-Initiate the project by selecting a project leader.
-Make sure that the project’s objectives are in line with the strategic direction/goals of the organization.
-Provide overall direction to the project.
-Make sure the team has the resources required to complete the project successfully.
-Obtain commitment from the resource managers to support the project.
-Review and approve the project plan.
-Review status reports.
-Review progress on the project with the project leader.
-Help to remove obstacles that can’t be overcome by the team or the project leader.
-Mentor or coach the project leader.
-Review and approve the final report
PROJECT CUSTOMER
A project exists to satisfy a customer. The project customer is the recipient of the main output of the project, called the final deliverable. In order to make sure the final deliverables satisfies the customer, the customer must convey to the project team what the needs and requirements for the deliverable will be. A customer can be internal or external to the organization. Most projects are done for internal customers (customers inside the organization), although the final deliverable produced by the project might eventually be distributed to or purchased by an external customer.
PROJECT CUSTOMER ROLE
-Provide the project team with a clear picture of their needs and requirements
-Review and approve the charter
-Participate on the project team where appropriate
-Inform the project leader of any changes in the environment that would affect the project deliverables
-Approve changes to the project when needed to make the project a success
-Review project status reports
-Provide feedback to the project leader on a regular basis
-Evaluate the final deliverables as well as the project process
and they can also:
-Review and approve the entire project plan (External customers usually review only the scope section of the plan)
-Review the final status report
NB External customer
If you have a project with an external customer, it is imperative to have an internal sponsor working on the project. The internal sponsor’s job is to balance the needs of the external customer with the needs of the internal organization. If your project has an internal customer, the internal customer may double as the project sponsor.
Organization charts
n Organizational Chart is a chart, which represents the structure of an organization in terms of rank.
The chart also shows relationships between staff in the organization, which can be:
-Line - direct relationship between superior and subordinate.
-Lateral - relationship between different departments on the same hierarchical level.
-Staff - relationship between an managerial assistant and other areas. The assistant will be able to offer advice to a line manager. However, they have no authority over the line manager actions.
-Functional - relationships between specialist positions and other areas. The specialist will normally have authority to insist that a line manager implements any of their instructions.
Hierarchical
An organizational chart can help the project manager and the project team identifies the reporting relationships among the project team, management, and other key stakeholders
Responsibility Assignment Matrix (RAM)
A RAM can be high-level-for example, mapping project groups to the high-level components of a WBS, such as architecture, network, or software creation. A RAM can also be detailed specific to the activities within the project work
Text Oriented
written document consisting of: Who will play a role, what the responsibility of the role is, the level of Authority and a list of actions to be taken along with the desired result of the actions
Organisational make up
Functional
This traditional structure groups people by specialization (for example, marketing, contracting, accounting, and so on). The project manager has no formal authority over project resources and must rely on the informal power structure and his or her own interpersonal skills to obtain resource commitments from functional managers. Conflicts tend to develop over the relative priorities of various projects competing for limited resources.
ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP
Weak Matrix
The matrix organization maintains vertical functional lines of authority while establishing a relatively permanent horizontal structure containing the managers for various projects. The project managers interact with all functional units supporting their projects. In a weak matrix, the balance of power leans toward the functional manager rather than the project manager. That is, workers’ administrative relationships, physical proximity, and relative time expenditures favor the functional manager.
ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP
Strong Matrix
The strong matrix is the same as the weak matrix except that the balance of power favors the project manager rather than the functional manager. The project manager has medium to high formal authority.
ORGANIZATIONAL SETUP
Projectized
In a projectized organization, a separate, vertical structure is established for each project. Personnel are assigned to particular projects on a full-time basis. The project manager has total authority over the project, subject only to the time, cost, and performance constraints specified in the project targets.
How do you know if it is a strong matrix
If all money and reports are generated by the project and are respected as being from the project, then it is a strong matrix.
How do you know if it is a weak matrix
If the functional organizations are seen as generating revenue for the organization rather than the project organizations, then it is a weak matrix.
What is PMI’s ideal structure
the projectized organization, a place where the project has its own reporting structure within the organization.
The project manager is a professional in PMI’s eyes
That means that the project manager has a responsibility to have a good education, a good understanding of the practice, and experience in the respective field. The PM will play a series of roles: project manager, integrator, communicator, team leader, decision maker, etc.
The Powers of the Project Manager
Expert Power -
The project manager is an expert with the goal the project focuses on.
Expert power can only be exercised by individuals who are held in particular esteem because of their special knowledge or skill. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from reputation, knowledge, and experience.
The Powers of the Project Manager
Reward Power -
The project manager can reward the project team members.
Reward power involves positive reinforcement and the ability to award people something of value in exchange for their cooperation. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy and degree of control over the project.
The Powers of the Project Manager
Coercive Power
The project manager can punish the project team members.
Coercive power is predicated on fear (for example, subordinate fears being deprived of something for failing to do what the supervisor asks). The ability to use this power derives from the project manager’s control over the project and project personnel.
The Powers of the Project Manager
Formal Power
The project manager is formally assigned to the role of the project manager.
Formal Power - Legitimate power is derived from the person’s formal position within the organization. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy and his or her degree of control over the project, as modified by the organizational climate. Use of this power should be in conjunction with expert and reward power whenever possible.
The Powers of the Project Manager
Referent Power
The project team knows the project manager. The project manager refers to the person that assigned them to the role of project manager.
Referent power is based on citing the authority of a more powerful person (for example, one’s supervisor) as the basis for one’s own authority. The project manager’s ability to use this power derives from his or her position in the organizational hierarchy.
STAFFING MANAGEMENT PLAN
This is a subsidiary plan to the Project management plan which includes the processes of staff acquisition, time-table of staff acquisition, team member release criteria, staff training requirements, policies for reward and recognition, compliance requirements and safety protocol.
How is staffing generally represented?
Staffing is generally represented by a Resource Histogram - A resource histogram illustrates the employee’s time and activities accordingly. The host organization’s management may choose to utilize this information to make decisions about other organizational goals that require time and effort from the project contributors
ACQUIRING THE PROJECT TEAM
-Follow the rules of host organisation
-PM must be aware of, and work well with, the levels of authority.
-If the PM is working within a Functional matrix, then he must be prepared to allow the employee’s functional manager to determine things like availability and the PM must provide feedback to the functional manager regarding performance.
What would one team constraint be?
On the exam you’ll need to know that when recruitment policies or guidelines are in place within the performing (host) organization, they act as a project constraint.
Learn about Project Team Members
-Experience
-Interest level
-Characteristics
-avaiabiliyt
-knowledge
Experience
What is the experience of the project team member? Have they done similar work in the past-and have they done it well?
Interest Level
Are the project team members interested in working on this project?
Characteristics
How will this individual team member work with other project team members?
Availability
Will the project team members desired for the project be available? Project managers should confer with functional managers on the availability of the potential team member.
Knowledge
What is the competency and proficiency of the available project team members?
NB - Team trouble
Management of the project team is complicated when team members are accountable to both a functional manager and the project manager within a matrix organization. Effective management of this dual reporting relationship is critical to the projects success.
Virtual Teams
A Virtual Team is a group of individuals who work across time, space, and organizational boundaries with links strengthened by webs of communication technology. They have complementary skills and are committed to a common purpose, have interdependent performance goals, and share an approach to work for which they hold themselves mutually accountable.
TEAM BUILDING - Goals / results of project team building
-Team members are interdependent
-There is a consensus on well-defined project goals and objectives
-Team members are committed to working together
-Team is accountable as a functioning unit within the larger organization
-There is a moderate level of competition and conflict
TEAM BUILDING - Symptoms of poor team work
-Frustration
-Conflict and unhealthy competition
-Unproductive meetings
-Lack of trust or confidence in the project manager
TEAM BUILDING
Ground Rules for Project Team Building
-Start early
-Continue team building through the life of the project
-Recruit the best possible people
-Make sure that everyone who will significantly contribute to the project, full or part time, is on the team
-Obtain team agreement on all major actions
-Recognize the existence of team politics but stay out of them
-Behave as a role model
-Use delegation as the best way to assure commitment
-Don’t try to force or manipulate team members
-Regularly evaluate team effectiveness
-Plan and use a team-building process
The Team-Building Process
-Plan for team building
-Carefully define project roles and assignments
-Ensure project goals and members’ personal goals coincide
-Negotiate for team members
-Obtain the most promising personnel available
-Choose candidates for both technical expertise and potential to be effective team members
-Organize the team
-Make specific assignments to specific people
-Prepare and circulate responsibility matrixes
-Hold a “kickoff” meeting (See Lecture 8 for details)
-Set technical and procedural agendas
-Ensure sufficient time for members to get to know one another
-Establish working relationships and communications
-Obtain team-member commitments
-Time commitment
-Role commitment
-Project priority commitment
-Build communication links
-Conduct team-building exercises
-Incorporate team-building activities into all project activities
-Meetings, planning sessions, and technical/schedule reviews
-Group and individual counseling sessions
-Recognition of outstanding performance
Negotiation Skills
The project management teams ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating staff assignments, as do the politics of the organizations involved.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Whether conflict has a net positive or negative effect on a project and its parent organization depends on how the project manager handles it. PMI® recognizes five methods for dealing with conflict
-Problem Solving/Confrontation
-Compromising
-Smoothing
-Withdrawal
-Forcing
Problem Solving/Confrontation
With problem solving, the project manager addresses conflict directly in a problem-solving mode to get the parties working together to define the problem, collect information, develop and analyze alternatives, and select the most appropriate alternative.
Compromising
Compromising consists of bargaining and searching for solutions that attempt to bring some degree of satisfaction to the conflicting parties. Neither party wins but each may get some degree of satisfaction.
Smoothing
Smoothing consists of de-emphasizing the opponents’ differences and emphasizing their commonalties over the issues in question. Smoothing keeps the atmosphere friendly, but avoids solving the root causes of the conflict.
Withdrawal
Withdrawal is defined as retreating from actual or potential disagreements and conflict situations. It is really a delaying tactic that fails to resolve the conflict but does cool the situation down temporarily.
Forcing
Forcing consists of exerting one’s viewpoint at the potential expense of another party, thus establishing a win-lose situation.
: Know that personality conflicts are the smallest problem with conflict resolution and they are the least important. THESE ARE THE MAIN POINTS OF "CONFLICT" FOR THE EXAM
Schedules
Priorities
Resources
Technical beliefs
Administrative policies and procedures
Project costs
Personalities
MOTIVATION THEORIES - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
-people work to take care of a hierarchy of needs. The pinnacle of their needs is self-actualization . People want to contribute, prove their work, and use their skills and ability. Five layers of needs, from the bottom-up, are:
-Physiological - The necessities to live: air, water, food, clothing, and shelter.
-Safety - People need safety and security; this can include stability in life, work, and culture.
-Social - People are social creatures and need love, approval, and friends.
-Esteem - People strive for the respect, appreciation, and approval of others.
-Self-actualization - At the pinnacle of needs, people seek personal growth, knowledge, and fulfillment
MOTIVATION THEORIES -
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor's Theory states that management believes there are two types of workers, good and bad. X is bad . These people need to be watched all the time, micromanaged, and distrusted. X people avoid work, responsibility, and have no ability to achieve.
Y is good . These people are self-led, motivated, and can accomplish new tasks proactively
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Ouchi’s Theory Z
X = bad
Y = good
Z = better
Ouchi’s Theory Zthat workers are motivated by a sense of commitment , opportunity , and advancement . Employees learn the business by moving up through the ranks of the company. It also explains the idea of 'lifetime employment.' Workers will stay with one company until they retire because they are dedicated to the company that is in turn dedicated to them.
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Herzberg's Theory of Motivation - there are two catalysts for success with people

This theory says the presence of hygiene factors will not motivate people to perform, as these are expected attributes. However, the absence of these elements will de-motivate performance. For people to excel, the presence of motivating factors must exist
-Hygiene agents - These elements are the expectations all workers have: job security, a paycheck, clean and safe working conditions, a sense of belonging, civil working relationships, and other basic attributes associated with employment.
-Motivating agents - These are the elements that motivate people to excel. They include responsibility, appreciation of work, recognition, the chance to excel, education, and other opportunities associated with work other than just financial rewards.
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory states that people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work. If the attractiveness of the reward is desirable to the worker, they will work to receive the reward. People expect to be rewarded for their effort.

One, you get what you expect—self-fulfilling prophecy. The other is, if people think that their outcomes are going to be significant, if they think they are going to matter in terms of the organization, they will perform better. People like to be involved in something where they think they are making a difference. That is what expectancy theory is all about.
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
INPUTS
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Project Management Plan

Activity Resource Requirements
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
TnT
Organization Charts and Position Descriptions
Networking
Organizational Theory
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
Outputs
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
Inputs
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
TnT
Pre-Assignment
Negotiation
Acquisition
Virtual Teams
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
Outputs
Project Staff Assignments
Resource Availability
Staffing Management Plan (updates)
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
Inputs
Project Staff Assignments
Staffing Management Plan
Resource Availability
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
TnT
General Management Skills
Training
Team-Building Exercises
Ground Rules
Co-location
Recognition and Rewards
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
Outputs
Team Performance Assessment
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
Inputs
Organizational Process Assets
Project Staff Assignments
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Team Performance Assessment
Work Performance Information
Performance Reports
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
TnT
Observation and Conversation
Project Performance Appraisals
Conflict Management
Issue Log
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
Outputs
Requested Changes
Recommended Corrective Actions
Recommended Preventative Actions
Organizational Process Assets (updates)
Project Management Plan (updates)
Communication Processes defined
Communication is the link between people, ideas, and information. Project Communications Management includes four processes
-Communication planning
-Information distribution
-Performance reporting
-Manage Stakeholders
Communication planning
The project manager will need to identify the stakeholders and their communication needs and determine how to fulfill their requirements
The Team-Building Process
-Plan for team building
-Carefully define project roles and assignments
-Ensure project goals and members’ personal goals coincide
-Negotiate for team members
-Obtain the most promising personnel available
-Choose candidates for both technical expertise and potential to be effective team members
-Organize the team
-Make specific assignments to specific people
-Prepare and circulate responsibility matrixes
-Hold a “kickoff” meeting (See Lecture 8 for details)
-Set technical and procedural agendas
-Ensure sufficient time for members to get to know one another
-Establish working relationships and communications
-Obtain team-member commitments
-Time commitment
-Role commitment
-Project priority commitment
-Build communication links
-Conduct team-building exercises
-Incorporate team-building activities into all project activities
-Meetings, planning sessions, and technical/schedule reviews
-Group and individual counseling sessions
-Recognition of outstanding performance
Negotiation Skills
The project management teams ability to influence others plays an important role in negotiating staff assignments, as do the politics of the organizations involved.
CONFLICT MANAGEMENT
Whether conflict has a net positive or negative effect on a project and its parent organization depends on how the project manager handles it. PMI® recognizes five methods for dealing with conflict
-Problem Solving/Confrontation
-Compromising
-Smoothing
-Withdrawal
-Forcing
Problem Solving/Confrontation
With problem solving, the project manager addresses conflict directly in a problem-solving mode to get the parties working together to define the problem, collect information, develop and analyze alternatives, and select the most appropriate alternative.
Compromising
Compromising consists of bargaining and searching for solutions that attempt to bring some degree of satisfaction to the conflicting parties. Neither party wins but each may get some degree of satisfaction.
Smoothing
Smoothing consists of de-emphasizing the opponents’ differences and emphasizing their commonalties over the issues in question. Smoothing keeps the atmosphere friendly, but avoids solving the root causes of the conflict.
Withdrawal
Withdrawal is defined as retreating from actual or potential disagreements and conflict situations. It is really a delaying tactic that fails to resolve the conflict but does cool the situation down temporarily.
Forcing
Forcing consists of exerting one’s viewpoint at the potential expense of another party, thus establishing a win-lose situation.
: Know that personality conflicts are the smallest problem with conflict resolution and they are the least important. THESE ARE THE MAIN POINTS OF "CONFLICT" FOR THE EXAM
Schedules
Priorities
Resources
Technical beliefs
Administrative policies and procedures
Project costs
Personalities
MOTIVATION THEORIES - Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs
-people work to take care of a hierarchy of needs. The pinnacle of their needs is self-actualization . People want to contribute, prove their work, and use their skills and ability. Five layers of needs, from the bottom-up, are:
-Physiological - The necessities to live: air, water, food, clothing, and shelter.
-Safety - People need safety and security; this can include stability in life, work, and culture.
-Social - People are social creatures and need love, approval, and friends.
-Esteem - People strive for the respect, appreciation, and approval of others.
-Self-actualization - At the pinnacle of needs, people seek personal growth, knowledge, and fulfillment
MOTIVATION THEORIES -
McGregor’s Theory X and Theory Y
McGregor's Theory states that management believes there are two types of workers, good and bad. X is bad . These people need to be watched all the time, micromanaged, and distrusted. X people avoid work, responsibility, and have no ability to achieve.
Y is good . These people are self-led, motivated, and can accomplish new tasks proactively
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Ouchi’s Theory Z
X = bad
Y = good
Z = better
Ouchi’s Theory Zthat workers are motivated by a sense of commitment , opportunity , and advancement . Employees learn the business by moving up through the ranks of the company. It also explains the idea of 'lifetime employment.' Workers will stay with one company until they retire because they are dedicated to the company that is in turn dedicated to them.
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Herzberg's Theory of Motivation - there are two catalysts for success with people

This theory says the presence of hygiene factors will not motivate people to perform, as these are expected attributes. However, the absence of these elements will de-motivate performance. For people to excel, the presence of motivating factors must exist
-Hygiene agents - These elements are the expectations all workers have: job security, a paycheck, clean and safe working conditions, a sense of belonging, civil working relationships, and other basic attributes associated with employment.
-Motivating agents - These are the elements that motivate people to excel. They include responsibility, appreciation of work, recognition, the chance to excel, education, and other opportunities associated with work other than just financial rewards.
MOTIVATION THEORIES
Expectancy Theory
Expectancy Theory states that people will behave based on what they expect as a result of their behavior. In other words, people will work in relation to the expected reward of the work. If the attractiveness of the reward is desirable to the worker, they will work to receive the reward. People expect to be rewarded for their effort.

One, you get what you expect—self-fulfilling prophecy. The other is, if people think that their outcomes are going to be significant, if they think they are going to matter in terms of the organization, they will perform better. People like to be involved in something where they think they are making a difference. That is what expectancy theory is all about.
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
INPUTS
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Project Management Plan

Activity Resource Requirements
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
TnT
Organization Charts and Position Descriptions
Networking
Organizational Theory
Human Resource Management: Human Resource Planning
OUtputs
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
Inputs
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
TnT
Pre-Assignment
Negotiation
Acquisition
Virtual Teams
Human Resource Management: Acquire Project Team
Outputs
Project Staff Assignments
Resource Availability
Staffing Management Plan (updates
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
Inputs
Project Staff Assignments
Staffing Management Plan
Resource Availability
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
TnT
General Management Skills
Training
Team-Building Exercises
Ground Rules
Co-location
Recognition and Rewards
Human Resource Management: Develop Project Team
Outputs
Team Performance Assessment
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
Inputs
Organizational Process Assets
Project Staff Assignments
Roles and Responsibilities
Project Organization Charts
Staffing Management Plan
Team Performance Assessment
Work Performance Information
Performance Reports
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
TnT
Observation and Conversation
Project Performance Appraisals
Conflict Management
Issue Log
Human Resource Management: Manage Project Team
Outputs
Requested Changes
Recommended Corrective Actions
Recommended Preventative Actions
Organizational Process Assets (updates)
Project Management Plan (updates)
Communication Processes defined
Communication is the link between people, ideas, and information. Project Communications Management includes four processes:
Communication planning
Information distribution
Performance reporting
Manage Stakeholders
Communication planning
The project manager will need to identify the stakeholders and their communication needs and determine how to fulfill their requirements.
Information distribution
The project manager will need to get the correct information on the correct schedule to the appropriate stakeholders.
Performance reporting
The project manager will rely on EVM and other performance measurement to create status reports, measure performance, and forecast project conditions
Manage Stakeholders
The project manager will manage communications to satisfy the requirements of and resolve issues with project stakeholders.
What is Project Communications Management?
-Proj Man spend 90 percent of their time communicating during a project
-needs a Communications Management Plan to determine what needs to be communicated, to whom, and when.
Organizational structure affects the flow of communications.
Matrix structures have to include the functional managers of the project team from the different units within the organization, whereas a functional organization does not have the same level of complexity in reporting.
Management, customers, and other concerned stakeholders will be interested in the performance of the project
The project manager will need to meet their expectations on an established schedule or based on conditions within the project.
one of the best ways One of for showing performance is what?
earned value analysis
Administrative closure happens at the end of each phase and at the end of the project
Administrative closure is the final documentation of the project; it includes the process of organizing, indexing, and archives all relevant project materials. The archived materials should show the project performance from start to formal acceptance that signals project closure.
NBNBNB COmmunication
The PM spends 90% of his time Communicating. Communication is the most important skill a project manager can have. Since the project manager is expected to spend so much time communicating, a plan to determine what needs to be communicated, to whom, and when.
Types of communication
Formal written (project charter or management plan)
Informal written (engineer’s notes, memos)
Formal verbal (presentations)
Informal verbal (conversations)
Body Language
Writing Style (Active or Passive)
Managing Techniques (Formal Agenda’s, conflict management)
General Management Skills
Leading : Establishing direction, aligning people, and motivating and inspiring
Communicating : The exchange of information, which has a variety of dimensions including written and oral, internal and external, formal and informal, as well as vertical and horizontal
Negotiating : Conferring with others in order to come to terms or reach an agreement; may focus on any or all of the following: scope, cost, and schedule objectives; changes; contract terms and conditions; assignments; or resources
Problem solving : A combination of problem definition and decision making
Influencing the organization : The ability to get things done, based on an understanding of the formal and informal structures of the organization
Within communicating there are five characteristics that affect the message:
Para lingual : pitch, tone, and voice inflections
Feedback : sender confirmation of the message by asking questions, for a response, or other confirmation signals
Active listening : receiver confirms message receipt
Effective listening : receiver offers confirmation of the message, such as nodding their head, asking questions, or other interactions.
Nonverbal : facial expressions, hand gestures, and body language
Sender-Receiver Model
The basic communication model consists of a sender, a message, and a receiver. When technology is involved, the project can become more complex: encoders, the medium, and decoders are included.
Sender
The sender is what or who is trying to send a message to the receiver.
Encoder
In the general case, it is not possible to directly insert the message onto the communications medium. For instance, when you speak on the telephone, it is not possible to actually transmit sound (vibrations in matter) across the wire for any distance. In your phone is a microphone, which converts the sound into electrical impulses, which can be transmitted by wires. Those electrical impulses are then manipulated by the electronics in the phone so they match up with what the telephone system expects.
Message
Since this is a communication engineer's model, the message is the actual encoded message that is transmitted by the medium.
Medium
The medium is what the message is transmitted on. The phone system, Internet, and many other electronic systems use wires. Television and radio can use electromagnetic radiation. Even bongo drums can be used as a medium
Decoder
The decoder takes the encoded message and converts it to a form the receiver understands, since for example a human user of the phone system does not understand electrical impulses directly.
Receiver
The receiver is the target of the message
formation typically required to determine project communications requirements includes:
Organization charts
Project organization and stakeholder responsibility relationships
Disciplines, departments, and specialties involved in the project
Logistics of how many persons will be involved with the project and at which locations
Internal information needs (e.g., communicating across organizations)
External information needs (e.g., communicating with the media or contractors)
Stakeholder information
Every project has constraints and assumptions
Constraints are any force that limits the project’s options. A project constraint, such as contractual obligations, may require extensive communications. The requirements of the contract should be evaluated against the demands of the project staff to determine if extra resources will be needed to handle the communications.
Every project has constraints and assumptions
Assumptions can also affect communications. Consider a project operating under the assumption that communications with management can happen only through e-mail. Management, however, expects the project manager to provide formal status reports and daily updates via memos and also needs staffing updates from each of the project team members. This false assumption can impose time demands the project manager had not expected.
COMMUNICATIONS CHANNELS
As the scope of a project grows larger, it is also natural in most cases for the size of the project team to grow larger. On the exam the PM will need to identify the number of communication channels within a project.
The formula to calculate the number of communication channels is:
N (N–1)/2

N represents the number of identified stakeholders. For example, if a project has 10 stakeholders, the formula would read 10(10–1)/2 for a total of 45 communication channels. If N = 10 Stakeholders; Then N-1 = 9. The completed formula is then 10(9) / 2 = 90/2 = 45
eg exam note which of the following is an example of formal written communication?”
A good example might be a project charter or management plan.
vCommunications Management Plan documents who is going to be talking with whom, who is allowed to talk with whom, and how are they going to do it.
nbnbnb
Information can be distributed through the following as well as other methods, according to project demands and as technology provides:
Project meetings
Hard-copy documentation
Databases
Faxes
E-mail
Telephone calls
Videoconferences
A project web site
Information distribution results in the following:
-Project reports
-Project reports
-Project presentations
Project records
Project records are vital to the project team. Project records are the memos, correspondence, e-mails, and any other project-relevant information. It’s important to secure and organize this information throughout the project for future reference. This information should be stored as part of the project archives.
Project reports
Reports are formal communications on project activities, status, and conditions. Management, customers, and policies within the performing organization may have differing requirements for when reports are required
Project presentations
Presentations are useful in providing information to customers, management, the project team, and other stakeholders. The delivery and degree of formality of the presentation should be appropriate for the conditions and information being delivered within the project.
Management Styles
The Project Communications Management section of the exam may address the following management styles:
Authoritarian
Combative
Conciliatory
Disruptive
Ethical
Facilitating
Intimidating
Judicial
Promotional
Secretive
Authoritarian :
Lets individuals know what is expected of them; gives specific guidance; expects adherence to rules and standards
Combative :
Eager to fight or be disagreeable over any situation
Conciliatory :
Friendly and agreeable; attempts to unite players into a compatible working team
Disruptive :
Tends to disrupt unity and cause disorder
Ethical :
Honest and sincere; presses for fair solutions; goes “by the book”
Facilitating :
Does not interfere with day-to-day tasks, but is available for help and guidance when needed
Intimidating :
Reprimands employees for the sake of a “tough guy” image
Judicial :
Applies sound judgment
Promotional :
Cultivates team spirit; rewards good work; encourages subordinates to realize their full potential
Secretive :
Not open or outgoing in speech, activity, or purpose
Organizational Structure and Communications
Communicating team performance (rewards and reprimands) is sometimes difficult for the PM. Reporting structure of the project team is an important factor. Matrix structures have to include the functional managers of the project team from the different units within the organization, whereas a functional organization does not have the same level of complexity in reporting.
Issues Log
For the PM to manage stakeholders it is important to communicate on a regular basis. In that communication the PMBOK suggests face-to-face meetings are the most effective and phone calls and email are secondary options. The PMBOK also suggests the use of issues logs as a tool to document, monitor and communication resolution of issues.
LESSONS LEARNED

Project Managers have a professional obligation to conduct lessons learned sessions for all projects. An example of specific lessons learned may include:
Update of the lessons learned knowledge base
Input to knowledge management systems
Updated corporate policies, procedures and processes
Improved business skills
Overall product and service improvements
Updates to the risk management plan
Progress reports/presentations
One of the most important ongoing components of effective project communication
Project plan
The careful analysis required to document the project plan tends to reduce uncertainty on the project, and the distribution of the plan does a lot to keep appropriate people informed
Stakeholder Feedback
This includes notifications to stakeholders about resolved issues and completed changes, along with requests submitted to the Project team by stakeholders.
PERFORMANCE REPORTING
Status reports How’s the project right now?
Progress reports How complete is the project? How much more work remains?
Forecasting Will this project end on schedule? Will the project be on budget? How much longer will this project take? And how much more money will this project need to finish?
Scope How is the project meeting the project scope?
Quality What are the results of quality audit, testing, and analysis?
Risks What risks have come into the project and what has been their affect on the project?
The goal of performance reporting
The purpose of reporting is to share information regarding the project performance with the appropriate stakeholders. Performance reporting is done on a regular schedule.
Performance reports -
These are the results and summation of the project performance analysis. The Communications Management Plan will detail the type of report needed based on the conditions within the project, the timing of the communication, and the demands of the project stakeholder.
Change requests
Results of performance may prompt change requests to some area of the project. The change requests should flow into the change control system for consideration and approval or denial.
Forecasts
Have a basic understanding of Forecasts. Forecasts are updated and reissued based on work performance information provided as the project is executed. This information is about the project’s past performance that could impact the project in the future, for example, estimate at completion and estimate to complete.
Communicating change
Performance reports and change requests are an input to the following Change Control Processes:
Integrated Change Control
Scope Change Control
Schedule Change Control
Cost Change Control
NB
The project plan is one of the key inputs to performance reporting. The project plan contains the WBS, the project scope and requirements, and other documentation that can be used to measure project progress and performance. Other inputs to performance reporting are the work results. Work results can be examined and measured for quality, time spent completing the work, and the monies required to complete the work results. The work results, as progress reports or completion of work results, can be measured against the estimates and expectations to reveal variances. The Communications Management Plan will detail how values are measured, for example EVM, and at what point variances call for communications to the appropriate stakeholders. The last inputs to performance reporting are other project records, such as memos, product description, and other information relevant to the project. For example, a customer may request project status updates every quarter, regardless of where the project is in its timeline. Or a project may have multiple vendors whose contracts require differing levels and types of reporting from the project staff. This is a communication requirement that would be in the Communications Management Plan.
Communications Management: Communications Planning
Inputs
Enterprise Environmental Factors
Organizational Process Assets
Project Scope Statement
Project Management Plan

Constraints
Assumptions
Communications Management: Communications Planning
TnT
Communications Requirements Analysis
Communications Technology
Communications Management: Communications Planning
Outputs
Communications Management Plan
Communications Management: Information Distribution
Inputs
Communications Management Plan
Communications Management: Information Distribution
TnT
Communications Skills
Information Gathering and Retrieval Systems
Information Distribution Methods
Lessons Learned Process
Communications Management: Information Distribution
Outputs
Organizational Process Assets (updates)
Requested Changes
smile
nearly over
Communications Management: Performance Reporting
Inputs
Work Performance Information
Performance Measurements
Forecasted Completion
Quality Control Measurements
Project Management Plan

Performance Measurement Baseline
Approved Change Requests
Deliverables
Communications Management: Performance Reporting
TnT
Information Presentation Tools
Performance Information Gathering and Compilation
Status Review Meetings
Time Reporting Systems
Cost Reporting Systems
Communications Management: Performance Reporting
Outputs
Performance Reports
Forecasts
Requested Changes
Recommended Corrective Actions
Organizational Process Assets (updates)
Communications Management: Manage Stakeholders
Inputs
Communications Management Plan
Organizational Process Assets
Communications Management: Manage Stakeholders
TnT
Communication Methods
Issue Logs
Communications Management: Manage Stakeholders
Outputs
Resolved Issues
Approved Change Requests
Approved Corrective Actions
Organizational Process Assets (updates)
Project Management Plan (updates)