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50 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
social psychology
the scientific study of how we think about, influence, adn relate ot one another.
attribution theory
teh theory that we tend to give a causal explanation for someone's behavior, often by crediting either the situation or the person's disposition
fundamental attribution error
the tendency for observers, when analyszing another's behavior, to underestimate the impact of teh situation and to overestimate the impact of personal disposition.
attitude
a belief and feeling that predisposes one to respond in a particular way to objects, people and events.
foot-in-the-door phenomenon
the tendency for people who have first agreed to a small request to comply later with a larger request
cognitive dissonance theory
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. for example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
conformity
adujusting one's behavior or thinking to coincide with a gorup standard.
normative social influence
influence resulting from a person'a desire to gain approval or avoid disapproval
infromational social influence
influence resulting from one's willingness to accept toehr's opinions about reality.
social faciltiation
improved performance of tasks in teh presence of others; occurs with simple or well learned tasks but not with task that are difficult or not yet mastered.
social loafing
the tendency for people in a gorup to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
deindividuation
the loss of self awareness and self restraint occurring in group situations taht foster arousal and anonymtity
group polarization
the enhavncement of a grou's prevailing attituedes through discussion within the group
groupthink
the mode of thinking that occurs when teh desire for harmony in a decision-making group overrides a realistic appraisal of alternatives.
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negatiev) attitude twoard a gorup and its members. prejudice generally involves sterotypeed beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
sterotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief aobut a group of people.
ingrouop
"us"-people with whom one shares a common identity.
outgroup
"them"-those perceived asd different or apart from one's group
ingroupbias
the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blaim
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and tha tpeople therefore get what they desreve and serve what they get.
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration aggression principle
the principle that frustration-teh blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
equity
a condition in whihch people receive form a relationship in proportion to waht they give to it.
prejudice
an unjustifiable (and usually negatiev) attitude twoard a gorup and its members. prejudice generally involves sterotypeed beliefs, negative feelings, and a predisposition to discriminatory action
sterotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief aobut a group of people.
ingrouop
"us"-people with whom one shares a common identity.
outgroup
"them"-those perceived asd different or apart from one's group
ingroupbias
the tendency to favor one's own group
scapegoat theory
the theory that prejudice offers an outlet for anger by providing someone to blaim
just-world phenomenon
the tendency of people to believe the world is just and tha tpeople therefore get what they desreve and serve what they get.
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
frustration aggression principle
the principle that frustration-teh blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal-creates anger, which can generate aggression
conflict
a perceived incompatibility of actions, goals, or ideas.
social trap
a situation in which the conflicting parties, by each rationally pursuing their self interest, become caught in mutually destructive behavior.
mere exposure effect
the phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
passionate love
an aroused state of intense positive absorption in another, usually present at the beginning of a love relationship
companionate love
the deep affectionate attachment we feel for those with whom our lives are intertwined.
equity
a condition in whihch people receive form a relationship in proportion to waht they give to it.
altruism
unselfish regard for teh welfare of others
bystander effect
the tendency for any given bystander to be less likely togive aid if other bystanders are present.
social exchange theory
the theory that our social behavior is an exchange process, teh aim of which is to maximize benefits and minimize costs.
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require their cooperation
GRIT
graduated and recrprocated initiatives in tension reduction-a strategy designed to decrease international tensions
social norms
understood rules for accepted and expected behavior are called social norms