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46 Cards in this Set

  • Front
  • Back
an individual's characterisitc pattern of thinking, feeling, adn acting.
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring teh unconscious in which the person relazxes and says whatever comes to mind, no matter how trivial or embarrassing.
fredu's theory of personality that ttributes our thoughts and actions to unconscious motives and conflicts; the techniques used in treating psychological disorders by seeking to expose and interpret unconscious tensions
according to freud, a reservoir of mostly unacceptabel thoughts, wishes, feelings, and memories.
contains a reservoir of unconscious psychic energy that, according to fred, strives to satisfy basic sexual adn agrgressive drives. the id operates on the pleasure principle, demanding immediate gratification.
the largely conscious, "executuive" part of personality that according to freud, mediates among the demands of the id, superego, and reality, the ego operates on teh reality principle, satisfying the id's desiers in ways that will realistically bring pleasure rather than pain.
teh party of personality that, according to freud, represents internalized ideals and provides standards for judgment (the conscience) and for future aspirations.
psychosexual stages
the childhood stages of development (oral, anal, phallic, latency, genital) during which, according to freud, the id's pleasureseeking energies focus on distinct erogenous zones.
oral stage
pleausre centers on teh mouth-suckign biting, chewing
0-18 months
anal stage
pleausre focuses on bowel and bladder elimination; coping iwth demands for control. 18-36 months
pleasure zone is the genitals; coping with incestuous sexual feelings. 3-6 years
dormant sexual feelings. 6 to puberty
maturation of sexual interests. puberty on
oedipus complex
according to freud, a boy's sexual desires toward his mother and feelings of jealousy and hatred for the rival father.
the process by which, according to freuud, children incorporate their parent's values in o their developing superegos.
according to freud, a lingering focus of pelasure seeking energies at an earlier psychosexual stage, where confliccs were unresolved.
defense mechanisms
in spcyhoanalytic etheorgy, teh ego's protective mehtods of reducing anxiety by unconsciously distorting reality.
in psychoanalystic theory, the basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
reaction formation
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by whcih the ego unconsciously swithces unacceptable impulses into their opposites. thus, people amy express felelings that are the opposite of their anxiety-arousing unconscious feelings.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism by which peopel disguse thei owne threatening impulses by attributing them to others.
defense mechanism tha toffers self-justifying explanations in tplace of the real, more threatening, unconscious reasons for one's actions.
psychoanalytic defense mechanism that shifts sexual or aggressive impulses toward a more acceptable or less threatening object or person, as when redircecting anger toward a safer outlet.
projective test
a personality test, such as teh rorschach or tat, that provides ambiguous stimuli designed to trigger projection of one's inner dynamics.
thematic apperception test(TAT).
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interets through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes.
rorschach inkblot test
the most widely used projective test, a set of 10 inkblots, designed by hermann rorschach; seeks to identify people's inner feelings by analyzign their interpretations of teh blots.
collective unconscious
carl jung's concept of a shared, inherited reservoir of memory traces from our species' history
self actualization
according to maslow, the ultimate psychological need that arises after basic physical and psychological needs are met and self esteem is achieved; the motivation to fulfill one's potential.
unconditional postive regard
according to rogers, an attitutde of total acceptance toward another person
all our thoughts and feeligns about ourselves, in answer to the question, "who ami"
a characteristic patter of behavior or a disposition to feel and act, as assessed by self report inventories adn peer reports.
personality inventory
a questionnaire (often with true false or agree disagree items) on which people respond to itesms desgined to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personatliy traits.
minnesota muliphasic personality inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests.. originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most approporiate use), this test is now used for many other screening puposes.
empirically derived test
a test (such as teh MMPI) developed by testing a pool of items and then selecting those that discriminate between groups.
social cognitive perspective
view behavior as influenced by the interaction between persons (and their htinking) and their social context.
reciprocal determinism
the interacting influences between personality and environmental factors.
personal control
our sense of controlling our environment rather than feelings helpless
external locus of control
the perception that chance or outside forces beyond one's personal control determine one's fate
internal locus of control
the perception tha tone controls one's own fate.
learned helplessness
teh hopplessness adn passive resignation an animal or human learns when unable to avoid repeated aversive events.
positive psychology
the scientific study of optimal human functioning; aims to discover and promote strengths and virtues that enable individuals and communities to thrive.
self serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably.
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals, and defining one's identity in terms of personal attriutes rather than group idnetifications.
giving priority to teh goals of one's group (often one's extended family or work group) and defning one's identity accordingly.
terror management theory
proposes that faith in one's worldview and teh pursuit of self esteem provide protection against a deeply rooted fear of death.
spotlight effect
overestimating other's noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders (as if we presume a spotlight shines on us).
self esteem
one's feelings of high or low self worth.